Can the structure of dormant cambium and the widths of phloem and xylem increments be used as indicators for tree vitality?
- 316 Downloads
We investigated the structure and width of the dormant cambium and of the increments of phloem and xylem of Quercus robur to estimate their potential as indicators for tree vitality. The samples were taken from three woodlands, two in Slovenia [Krakovo forest (KRA) and Murska Suma (MUS)] and one in Croatia [Kobiljak (KOB)], with reported tree decline. The number of dormant cells seems to reflect the initial capacity of the cambium to accomplish cell division. With the exception of two trees at KRA, cell production was always higher on the xylem side than on the phloem side. The annual phloem increments were narrower, less variable among trees and with clear lower and upper limits. With increased cambial cell productivity, the share of the xylem in the total annual radial increment increased following a curvilinear function. In trees with an annual radial increment >3.5 mm, the xylem size represented more than 90 % of the total radial growth. The anatomical variables analyzed show that the most limiting environmental conditions seem to prevail at KRA, whereas the conditions at MUS seem to be most favorable in terms of radial growth. Analysis of the width and structure of xylem and phloem increments, the number of dormant cambial cells and their inter-relationships can provide additional information on the vitality of oaks.
KeywordsEuropean oak Lowland forests Tree decline Radial growth Light microscopy
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the quality of the paper. The work was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency, program P4-0107 and project Z4-9662 and by EUFORINNO (RegPot No. 315982) of the FP7 Infrastructures program. The cooperation among the international partners was supported by the COST Action FP1106, STREeSS.
- Čater M, Kutnar L, Accetto M (2001) Slovenian lowland and floodplain forests. In: Klimo E, Hager H (eds) The floodplain forests in Europe: current situation and perspectives. Leiden, Boston, Köln, Brill, pp 233–248Google Scholar
- Čavlović J (2010) Prva nacionalna inventura šuma u Republici Hrvatskoj. ZagrebGoogle Scholar
- Frantar P (2005) Pretočni režimi v Sloveniji med letoma 1971 in 2000. Geografski vestnik 77(2):115–127Google Scholar
- Gozdnogospodarski načrt gozdnogospodarske enote Krakovo 2006–2015 (Forest management plan for Forest Management Unit Krakovo 2006–2015). BrežiceGoogle Scholar
- Gričar J (2007) Xylo- and phloemogenesis in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), vol 132. Studia Forestalia Slovenica, Slovenian Forestry Institute, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
- Klimo E, Hager H (2001) Executive summary. In: Klimo E, Hager H (eds) The floodplain forests in Europe: current situation and perspectives. Brill, Leiden Boston Köln, p 7Google Scholar
- Kozlowsky TT, Pallardy SG (1997) Growth control in woody plants. Academic Press Inc, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
- Panshin AJ, de Zeeuw C (1980) Textbook of wood technology, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computingGoogle Scholar
- Siegel S, Castellan NJ (1988) Non parametric statistics for the behavioural sciences, 2nd edn. MacGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Skene DS (1972) The kinetics of tracheid development in Tsuga canadensis Carr. and its relation to tree vigour. Ann Bot 36:179–187Google Scholar
- Taiz L, Zeiger E (2006) Plant physiology, 4th edn. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
- Tikvić I, Zečić Ž, Ugarković D, Posarić D (2009) Damage of forest trees and quality of timber assortmets of pedunculate oak on Spačva Area. Šumarski list 5–6:237–248Google Scholar
- Tyree MT, Zimmermann MH (2010) Xylem structure and the ascent of sap, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- UN-ECE (2008) The condition of forests in Europe: 2006 executive report. Institute for World Forestry, HamburgGoogle Scholar
- Urbančič M, Simončič P, Smolej I (2000) Pedunculate oak stands in lowland regions of Slovenia—soil water conditions. Glasnik za šumske pokuse 37:215–227Google Scholar
- Vaganov EA, Hughes MK, Shashkin AV (2006) Seasonal cambium activity and production of new xylem cells, vol Ecological Studies. Growth dynamics of conifer tree rings. Images of past and future environments, vol 183. Springer, Berlin. doi: 10.1007/3-540-31298-6_3