Advertisement

European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 130, Issue 5, pp 695–706 | Cite as

Transpiration of a hybrid poplar plantation in Saxony (Germany) in response to climate and soil conditions

  • Rainer PetzoldEmail author
  • Kai Schwärzel
  • Karl-Heinz Feger
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate transpiration and its main driving factors on the example of a hybrid poplar plantation with the clone Populus maximowiczii × P. nigra, cv. Max 1 on a site in the hilly loess region of Saxony (Germany). Transpiration was measured using sap flow techniques during the 2007 and 2008 growing season. At the same time, throughfall, soil moisture dynamics and soil physical properties were also measured. Total transpiration rates amounted to 486 mm and 463 mm, respectively, during the 2 years. Maximum daily transpiration rates reached 6.7 mm/day, while an average of 2.2 mm/day for the entire growing season was recorded. The main controlling factors for stand transpiration included the evaporative demand, water availability and soil temperature. The information was implemented into a simple empirical model for the prediction of transpiration. It can be concluded that large-scale establishment of poplar plantations will result in a distinct reduction in groundwater recharge. On the other hand, surface run-off and soil erosion may decrease. Due to limited water availability in the late growing season, the growth potential of the tested clone cannot fully be exploited at many sites in Germany.

Keywords

Evapotranspiration Soil water Poplar Plantation Sap flow 

Abbreviations

ETP

Potential evapotranspiration over grass

LAI

Leaf area index

REW

Root extractable water [fraction]

T

Stand transpiration

Tn

Stand transpiration normalised by LAI

Ts

Soil temperature

Notes

Acknowledgments

We like to express our thanks to J. Kučera (Brno) for his introduction to sap flow techniques and fruitful discussions, U. Haferkorn (Lysimeter station Brandis) and the Department of Meteorology, TU Dresden for providing additional lysimeter and eddy-flux data. The study was financially supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, project AGROWOOD - 0330710 A).

References

  1. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper no. 56, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen SJ, Hall LR, Rosier PTW (1999) Transpiration by two poplar varieties grown as coppice for biomass production. Tree Physiol 19:493–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernier PY, Bredá N, Granier A, Raulier F, Mathieu F (2002) Validation of a canopy gas exchange model and derivation of a soil water modifier for transpiration for sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) using sap flow density measurements. For Ecol Manage 163:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blake TJ, Sperry JS, Tschaplinski TJ, Wang SS (1996) Water relations. In: Stettler RF, Bradshaw HD, Heilman PE, Hinckley TM (eds) Biology of populus and its implications for management and conservation. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, pp 401–422Google Scholar
  5. Böhm W (1979) Methods for studying root systems. Ecological studies Vol. 33. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Braatne JH, Hinckley TM, Stettler RF (1992) Influence of soil water on the physiological and morphological components of plant water balance in Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and their F1 hybrids. Tree Physiol 11:325–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Braatne JH, Rood SB, Heilman PE (1996) Life history, ecology, and conservation of riparian cottonwoods in North America. In: Stettler R, Bradshaw H Jr, Heilman P, Hinckley T (eds) Biology of populus and its implications for management and conservation. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp 57–85Google Scholar
  8. Bungart R, Hüttl R (2004) Growth dynamics and biomass accumulation of 8-year-old hybrid poplar clones in a short-rotation plantation on a clayey-sandy mining substrate with respect to plant nutrition and water budget. Eur J Forest Res 123(2):105–115Google Scholar
  9. Cade BS, Noon BR (2003) A gentle introduction to quantile regression for ecologists. Front Ecol Environ 1:412–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Čermák J, Nadezhdina N (1998) Sapwood as the scaling parameter—defining according to xylem water content or radial pattern of sap flow? Ann Sci For 55:509–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Čermák J, Deml M, Penka M (1973) A new method of sap flow rate determination in trees. Biol Plant 15:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Čermák J, Kučera J, Nadezhdina N (2004) Sap flow measurement with some thermodynamic methods, flow integration within trees and scaling up from sample trees to entire forest stands. Trees 18:529–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen Y, Cohen S, Cantuarias-Aviles T, Schiller G (2008) Variations in the radial gradient of sap velocity in trunks of forest and fruit trees. Plant Soil 305:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coté B, Hendershot WH, Fyles JW, Roy AG, Bradley R, Biron PM, Courchesne F (1998) The phenology of fine root growth in a maple-dominated ecosystem: relationships with some soil properties. Plant Soil 201:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. EMS (2006) Sap flow system using LT 51.1 modules—instruction manual. BrnoGoogle Scholar
  16. Eriksson H, Eklundh L, Hall K, Lindroth A (2005) Estimating LAI in deciduous forest stands. Agric For Meteorol 129:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ewers BE, Mackay DS, Tang J, Bolstad PV, Samanta SS (2008) Intercomparison of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stand transpiration responses to environmental conditions from the Western Great Lakes region of the United States. Agric For Meteorol 148:231–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Granier A, Loustau D, Bredá N (2000) A generic model of forest canopy conductance dependent on climate, soil water availability and leaf area index. Ann For Sci 57:755–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haferkorn U (2000) Größen des Wasserhaushaltes verschiedener Böden unter landwirtschaftlicher Nutzung im klimatischen Grenzraum des Mitteldeutschen Trockengebietes, Ergebnisse der Lysimeterstation Brandis. Dissertation, University of GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  20. Hall RL, Allen SJ, Rosier PTW, Smith DM, Hodnett G, Roberts JM, Hopkins R, Davies HN (1996) Hydrological effects of short rotation energy coppice. Final report to ETSU. Institute of Hydrology, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Hall RL, Allen SJ, Rosier PTW, Hopkins R (1998) Transpiration from coppiced poplar and willow measured using sap-flow methods. Agric For Meteorol 90:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hinckley TM, Brooks JR, Čermák J, Ceulemans R, Kučera J, Meinzer FC, Roberts DA (1994) Water flux in a hybrid poplar stand. Tree Physiol 14:1005–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Jug A, Hoffmann-Schielle C, Makeschin F, Rehfuess KE (1999) Short rotation plantations of balsam poplars, aspen and willows on former arable land in the Federal Republic of Germany. II. Nutritional status and bioelement export by harvest of shoot axes. For Ecol Manage 121:67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kelliher FM, Leuning R, Raupach MR, Schulze ED (1995) Maximum conductances for evaporation from global vegetation types. Agric For Meteorol 73:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim HS, Oren R, Hinckley TM (2008) Actual and potential transpiration and carbon assimilation in an irrigated poplar plantation. Tree Physiol 28:559–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Koenker R (2005) Quantile regressions. Econometric Society Monographs 38. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  27. Kučera J, Čermak J, Penka M (1977) Improved thermal method of continual recording the transpiration flow rate dynamics. Biol Plant 19:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Levia DF, Frost EE (2003) A review and evaluation of stem flow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles of forested and agricultural ecosystems. J Hydrol 274:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Linderson ML, Iritz Z, Lindroth A (2007) The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones. Biomass Bioenergy 31:460–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lyr H (1996) Effect of the root temperature on growth parameters of various European tree species. Ann Sci For 53:317–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meiresonne L, Nadezhdina N, Čermak J, Van Slycken J, Ceulemans R (1999) Measured sap flow and simulated transpiration from a poplar stand in Flanders (Belgium). Agric For Meteorol 96:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mellander PE, Bishop K, Lundmark T (2004) The influence of soil temperature on transpiration: a plot scale manipulation in a young Scots pine stand. For Ecol Manage 195:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mellander PE, Stähli M, Gustafsson D, Bishop K (2006) Modelling the effect of low soil temperatures on transpiration by Scots pine. Hydrol Processes 20:1929–1944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Monclus R, Dreyer E, Villar M, Delmotte FM, Delay D, Petit JM, Barbaroux C, le Thiec BC, Brignolas F (2006) Impact of drought on productivity and water use efficiency in 29 genotypes of Populus deltoides × nigra. N Phytologist 169:765–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oren R, Sperry JS, Katul GG, Pataki DE, Ewers BE, Phillips N, Schäfer KVR (1999) Survey and synthesis of intra- and interspecific variation in stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit. Plant Cell Environ 22:1515–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Phillips N, Oren R (1998) A comparison of daily representations of canopy conductance based on two conditional time averaging methods and the dependence of daily conductance on environmental factors. Ann Sci For 55:217–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Poyatos R, Llorens P, Gallart F (2005) Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 9:493–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pregitzer KS, King JS, Burton AJ, Brown S (2000) Responses of tree fine roots to temperature. N Phytologist 147:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Richter D (1995) Ergebnisse methodischer Untersuchungen zur Korrektur des systematischen Meßfehlers des Hellmann-Niederschlagmessers. Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes 194, OffenbachGoogle Scholar
  40. R Development Core Team (2008) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org
  41. Schwärzel K, Menzer A, Clausnitzer F, Spank U, Häntzschel J (2009) Soil water content measurements deliver reliable estimates of water fluxes: a comparative study in a beech and a spruce stand in the Tharandt forest. Agric For Meteorol 149:1994–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Souch CA, Stephens W (1998) Growth, productivity and water use in three hybrid poplar clones. Tree Physiol 18:829–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Stephens W, Hess T, Knox J (2001) Review of the effects of energy crops on hydrology. Report to MAFF. Institute of Water and the Environment, Cranfield University, SilsoeGoogle Scholar
  44. Tatarinov FA, Kučera J, Cienciala E (2005) The analysis of physical background of tree sap flow measurement based on thermal methods. Measurement Sci Technol 16:1157–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Volk TA, Verwijst T, Tharakan PJ, Abrahamson LP, White EH (2004) Growing fuel: a sustainability assessment of willow biomass crops. Front Ecol Environ 2(8):411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zalesny RS, Hall RB, Bauer EO, Riemenscheider DE (2005) Soil temperature and precipitation affect the rooting ability of dormant hardwood cuttings of populus. Silvae Genetica 54(2):47–58Google Scholar
  47. Zhang H, Morison JIL, Simmonds LP (1999) Transpiration and water relation of poplar trees growing close to the water table. Tree Physiol 19(9):563–573PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rainer Petzold
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kai Schwärzel
    • 1
  • Karl-Heinz Feger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil Science and Site EcologyTechnische Universität DresdenTharandtGermany

Personalised recommendations