European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 129, Issue 3, pp 431–441 | Cite as

The seasonal variability of air pollution effects on pine conditions under changing climates

  • Algirdas AugustaitisEmail author
  • Ingrida Augustaitienė
  • Almantas Kliučius
  • Gintaras Pivoras
  • Dalia Šopauskienė
  • Raselė Girgždienė
Original Paper


The multiple-stressor effects of air pollution, nutrient and water availability are the key issues of present forest ecosystem research. However, too little is known about the seasonal effect of pollutants on tree crown defoliation and their interaction with changes in climate. Therefore, data on seasonal variation in air pollution, including surface ozone, deposition of acidifying compounds and meteorological conditions, were tested against pine defoliation to identify the periods when the effect of the considered contaminants is most pronounced. The findings of the study revealed that a higher level of air concentrations of acidifying pollutants and their deposition was observed during the dormant period, with the exception of only ΣNH4+ air concentrations and their monthly deposition. An increase in precipitation over the vegetation period and mean monthly temperature from September to December, as well as a decrease in temperature and precipitation over the remaining months of the dormant period represented the climate change condition over the 14-year period in the observed region. Detected changes in the considered parameters during the dormant period were found to be most significant to changes in pine crown defoliation. Therefore, we concluded that climate changes, if they occur by the detected scenarios, should mitigate the negative effect of air pollutants and acid deposition on pine crown condition.


Ozone Ozone Concentration Precipitation Amount Vegetation Period Acid Deposition 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Algirdas Augustaitis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ingrida Augustaitienė
    • 1
  • Almantas Kliučius
    • 1
  • Gintaras Pivoras
    • 1
  • Dalia Šopauskienė
    • 2
  • Raselė Girgždienė
    • 2
  1. 1.Lituanian University of AgricultureKaunas dstrLithuania
  2. 2.Institute of PhysicsVilniusLithuania

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