Advertisement

Effects of thinning on growth of six tree species in north-temperate forests of Lithuania

Abstract

This paper summarises the results from 35 years-observed thinning experiments on 256 permanent sample plots in 10–60 year-old stands of ash, aspen, birch, oak, pine and spruce in Lithuania. Thinning enhanced crown projection area increment of residual trees. The largest effect was observed in stands of aspen and birch (growth increase by 200%), followed by ash and oak (over 100%), and spruce and pine (about 80%). Thinning also promoted dbh increment, especially in younger stands, and the increase of dbh increment was positively correlated with the thinning intensity. The strongest reaction was exhibited by oak and aspen, while ash, birch and conifers reacted to a lower extent. Low and moderate intensities of thinning stimulated volume production in younger stands while the opposite was observed in older stands with increasing removals. Spruce stands exhibited relatively strongest increase of volume increment and pine, –the weakest, while the effect on deciduous species was intermediate. The results demonstrate that significant increase in volume increment is achievable with thinning of only young forest stands, e.g. 10–20 year-old pine, birch and ash, or 10–30 year-old oak, aspen and spruce.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Andersson SO (1980) Volume increment and stand safety in different types of thinning. Schr Forstl Fak Univ Gttingen 67:260–268

  2. Antanaitis VV, Zagreyev VV (1969) Increment of forest stands (in Russian). Lesnaya Promyshlennost, Moscow

  3. Assmann E (1950) Grundflächen- und Volumenzuwachs der Rotbuche bei verschiedenen Durchforstungsgraden. Forstwiss Centralbl 69:256–286

  4. Assmann E (1954) Grundflächenhaltung und Zuwachsleistung Bayrischer Fichten- Durchforstungsreihen. Forstwiss Centralbl 73:257–271

  5. Assmann E (1961) Waldertragskunde. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, Munchen, Bonn, Wien

  6. Baldwin VCJr, Peterson KD, Clark IIIA, Ferguson RB, Strub MR, Bower DR (2000) The effects of spacing and thinning on stand and tree characteristics of 38-year-old lobolly pine. Forest Ecol Manage 137:91–102

  7. Brukas A (1994) Die Wälder und Bestände. In: Deltuva R (ed). Wälder und Nationalparks in Litauen. Enciklopedija, Vilnius, pp 16–29

  8. Butenas J, Repsys J (1983) Growth and yield tables of pine and spruce stands (in Lithuanian). In: Repsys J, Kenstavicius J, Kuliesis A (eds). Handbook of forest mensuration. Mokslas, Vilnius, pp 84–90

  9. Buzykin AI, Pshenichnikova LS (1980) Thinnings in mixed pine-deciduous stands (in Russian). Nauka, Novosibirsk

  10. Canellas I, Del Rio M, Roig S, Montero G (2004) Growth response to thinning in Quercus pyrenaica Willd. coppice stands in Spanish central mountain. Ann Forest Sci 61:243–250

  11. Daume S, Robertson D (2000) A heuristic approach to modelling thinning. Silva Fenn 34:237–249

  12. Georgievsky NP (1957) Thinning of forest stands (in Russian). Goslesbumizdat, Moscow-Leningrad

  13. Guericke M (2002) Untersuchungen zur Wuchsdynamik der Buche. Forst und Holz 57:331–337

  14. Houtzagers MR (2002) Thinning in discussion (in Dutch). Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschr 74:7–14

  15. Hamilton GJ (1976) The Bowmont Norway spruce thinning experiment 1930–1974. Forestry (Oxford) 49:109–121

  16. Hamilton GJ (1981) The effects of high intensity thinning on yield. Forestry (Oxford) 54:1–15

  17. Eriksson H, Karlsson K (1997) Effects of different thinning and fertilization regimes on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in long-term silvicultural trials in Sweden (in Swedish, English summary). Report 42, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Yield Research, Uppsala

  18. Eule H-W (1959) Verfahren zur Baumkronenmessung und Beziehungen zwischen Kronengrsse, Stammstrke und Zuwachs der Rotbuche, dargestellt an einer nordwestdeutschen Durchforstungsversuchsreihe. Allg Forst- u Jagd- Ztg 130:185–201

  19. Juodvalkis A (1981) Silvicultural and biological fundamentals, and thinning programs for industrial forests of southern Baltic (in Russian). DSc Thesis, VN Sukachev Forest and Wood Science Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Krasnoyarsk

  20. Juodvalkis A et al. (2000) Regulations for thinning and sanitary felling (in Lithuanian). Naujasis Lankas, Kaunas

  21. Kairiukstis L, Juodvalkis A (1985) Thinnings and maximal yield of forest stands (in Lithuanian). Mokslas, Vilnius

  22. Kairiukstis L et al. (1974) Thinning regulations in forests of Lithuania (in Lithuanian). Ministry of Forestry, Vilnius

  23. Kairiukstis L et al. (1983a) Growth models of maximally productive forest stands (in Lithuanian). In: Repsys J, Kenstavicius J, Kuliesis A (eds). Handbook of forest mensuration. Mokslas, Vilnius, pp 97–103

  24. Kairiukstis L et al. (1983b) Programs for thinning of maximally productive forest stands (in Lithuanian). In: Repsys J, Kenstavicius J, Kuliesis A (eds). Handbook of forest mensuration. Mokslas, Vilnius, pp 223–226

  25. Karazija S (1988) Forest types of Lithuania (in Lithuanian). Mokslas, Vilnius

  26. Kennel R (1966) Soziale Stellung, Nachbarschaft und Zuwachs. Forstwiss Centralbl 85:193–204

  27. Kuliesis A et al. (1983) Volume of forest stands in relation to dbh and height (in Lithuanian). In: Repsys J, Kenstavicius J, Kuliesis A (eds). Handbook of forest mensuration. Mokslas, Vilnius, pp 36–53

  28. Lockow KW (2003) The effect of thinning regimes on the dynamics of Scots pine stand development (in Polish, English summary). Sylwan 9:3–9

  29. Makinen H, Isomaki A (2004a) Thinning intensity and growth of Norway spruce stands in Finland. Forestry (Oxford) 77:349–364

  30. Makinen H, Isomaki A (2004b) Thinning intensity and growth of Scots pine stands in Finland. Forest Ecol Manage 201:311–325

  31. Moller CM (1947) The effect of thinning, age, and site on foliage, increment, and loss of dry matter. J Forestry 45:393–404

  32. Nowak CA (1996) Wood volume increment in thinned, 50- to 55-year-old, mixed species Allegheny hardwoods. Can J Forest Res 26:819–835

  33. Oyen BH (2003) Thinning of spruce in Sorlandet –effects on growth, size and gain (in Norwegian). Rapp fra Skogforsk 2/03:1–16

  34. Pretzsch H (1992) Modellierung der Kronenkonkurrenz von Fichte und Buche in Rein- und Mischbeständen. Allg Forst- u Jagd- Ztg 163:203–213

  35. Repsys J, Antanaitis V (1970) Forest mensuration (in Lithuanian). Mintis, Vilnius

  36. Stefancik I, Stefancik L (2001) Assessment of tending effect on stand structure and stability in mixed stands of spruce, fir and beech on research plot Hrable. J Forest Sci (Zvolen) 47:1–14

  37. Stefancik I, Stefancik L (2002) Assessment of long-term tending in mixed stands of spruce, fir and beech on research plot Korytnica. J Forest Sci (Zvolen) 48:100–114

  38. Toma ST (1940) Kronenuntersuchungen in langfristigen Kieferndurchforstungsflächen. Zeitschr f Forst- u Jagdw 72:305–340, 379–404

  39. Tullus H (2002) The influence of intermediate cuttings on the growth of pine and spruce forests: silvicultural recommendations. Metsanduslikud Uurimused (Forestry Studies, Tartu) 36:126–135

  40. Varmola M, Salminen H (2004) Timing and intensity of precommercial thinning in Pinus sylvestris stands. Scand J Forest Res 19:142–151

  41. Vasiliauskas R (1998) Damages to stands of spruce associated with commercial thinning (in Lithuanian, English summary). Miskininkyste (Forestry Science, Kaunas) 41:47–57

  42. Vasiliauskas R (2001) Damage to trees due to forestry operations and its pathological significance in temperate forests. A literature review. Forestry (Oxford) 74:319–336

  43. Wohlfahrt E (1935) Auswirkungen langjhriger Kronenpflege in mitteldeutschen Fichtenbestnden. Zeitschr f Forst- u Jagdw 67:289–310, 344–360

  44. Zeide B (2001) Thinning and growth: a full turnaround. J Forestry 99:20–25

  45. Zeide B (2004) Optimal stand density: a solution. Can J Forest Res 34:846–854

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to R. Vasiliauskas.

Additional information

Communicated by Hans Pretzsch

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Juodvalkis, A., Kairiukstis, L. & Vasiliauskas, R. Effects of thinning on growth of six tree species in north-temperate forests of Lithuania. Eur J Forest Res 124, 187–192 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-005-0070-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Betula pendula
  • Betula pubescens
  • Fraxinus excelsior
  • Growing space
  • Growth
  • Picea abies
  • Pinus sylvestris
  • Populus tremula
  • Quercus robur
  • Thinning