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Erwerbs-Obstbau

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 127–134 | Cite as

Fruit Characteristics and Detachment Parameters of Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. ‘Kütahya’) as Affected by Various Maturity Stages

  • Rafet Aslantas
  • Ilker Angin
  • Mustafa Gokalp BoydasEmail author
  • Gursel Ozkan
  • Mazhar Kara
Original Article

Abstract

The variability in fruit maturity and quality has difficulties in determining the optimal harvesting maturity. Therefore, maturity stage in harvest is crucial for both fruit quality and minimizing the fruit detachment force. This study investigates the fruit characteristics and detachment parameters of sour cherry (cv. ‘Kütahya’) in terms of different maturity stages. Sour cherries were grouped into five different maturity stages by observation according to their color and dimensions. The fruit mass and dimension increased as a function of maturity stage; however, the fruit mass remained almost same after the 4th stage. The highest values of total soluble solids and titrable acid contents of sour cherry were gained in the last stage of maturity. The value of chroma of fruit outer color was higher 50 % than that of fruit inner color in the 1st maturity stage. However, it was almost same in the 5th stage of maturity. Increasing fruit maturity caused a decrease in the values of fruit detachment force ranging from 4.25 to 1.78 N, giving the coefficient of determination of 0.947. Similarly, the ratio of fruit detachment force to fruit mass, detachment stress, and specific energy decreased as the fruit maturity increased. The harvest of sour cherry is done only once in the optimum time to decrease the harvest cost. Minimizing the variability in fruit maturity throughout the tree is essential for gaining the maximum profit and lower fruit detachment force in this convenient time. Results of this study indicated that 3rd−5th maturity stages were critical for harvest. In order to attain the maximum poundage per tree and color for the market the most of the fruits should be in these stages. Therefore, appropriate management strategies that could homogenize the maturity throughout the tree should be applied.

Keywords

Sour cherry Maturity Fruit characteristics Fruit detachment force 

Fruchteigenschaften und Stiellöslichkeit von Sauerkirschen (Prunus cerasus L. cv. ‘Kütahya’) in Abhängigkeit verschiedener Reifestadien

Zusammenfassung

Die Schwankungen in Fruchtreife und Qualität bereiten Schwierigkeiten bei der Bestimmung der optimalen Fruchtreife für die Ernte. Das Reifestadium bei der Ernte ist sowohl für die Fruchtqualität als auch für eine möglichst gute Stiellöslichkeit entscheidend. Diese Studie untersucht die Fruchteigenschaften und die Festhaltekräfte von Sauerkirschen der Sorte ‘Kütahya’ bei verschiedenen Reifegraden. Die Früchte wurden hinsichtlich ihrer Farbe und Fruchtgröße in fünf verschiedene Reifestadien unterteilt. Das Fruchtgewicht und die -größe nehmen mit dem Reifestadium zu; nach dem 4. Stadium nimmt das Fruchtgewicht allerdings nicht mehr zu. Die höchsten Werte für die lösliche Trockensubstanz und den titrierbaren Gesamtsäuregehalt von Sauerkirschen wurden im letzten Reifestadium erreicht. Der Farbsättigungswert der Fruchthautfarbe war im ersten Reifestadium um 50 % höher als der entsprechende Wert des Fruchtfleisches. Im fünften Reifestadium waren die Farbsättigungswerte jedoch gleich. Mit zunehmender Fruchtreife nahmen die Fruchthaltekräfte von 4,25 N nach 1,78 N ab, was einem Bestimmtheitsmaß von r² = 0,947 entsprach. Gleichermaßen nahmen, mit zunehmender Fruchtreife, die Fruchthaltekräfte im Verhältnis zum Fruchtgewicht, die Probleme der Stiellöslichkeit und der dafür speziell benötigte Energiebedarf ab. Um die Erntekosten zu senken, werden Sauerkirschen nur einmal zum optimalen Zeitpunkt geerntet. Um den maximalen Ertrag und eine gute Stiellöslichkeit zu dem geeigneten Zeitpunkt zu erreichen, ist es erforderlich, die Schwankungen der Fruchtreife innerhalb der Baumkrone zu minimieren. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie zeigen, dass die dritten bis fünften Reifestadien für den Erntezeitpunkt entscheidend sind. Die meisten Früchte sollten sich in diesem Reifestadium befinden, um den höchsten Baumertrag und die beste Färbung für den Absatzmarkt zu erhalten. Der Einsatz geeigneter Managementstrategien ist wichtig, um die Fruchtreife innerhalb der Baumkrone zu homogenisieren.

Schlüsselwörter

Sauerkirsche Reifestadium Fruchteigenschaften Fruchtfesthaltekräfte Maschinelle Ernte 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Scientific Research Fund (BAP) of Atatürk University is gratefully acknowledged for financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafet Aslantas
    • 1
  • Ilker Angin
    • 2
  • Mustafa Gokalp Boydas
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gursel Ozkan
    • 1
  • Mazhar Kara
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Faculty of AgricultureAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey

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