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Nitrogen fertilizer promotes the rice pest Nilaparvata lugens via impaired natural enemy, Anagrus flaveolus, performance

Abstract

The application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to agricultural crops is a common practice globally and a crucial component in the current levels of productivity. Excessive N use, however, is costly and damaging to ecosystems. It is recognized that overuse of N fertilizer can promote pest herbivores by enhancing host plant nutritional quality, but less is known of the effects of N on natural enemies of pests via improved quality and availability of prey, and how these may cascade to indirect effects on pests. Here, we explored the effects of N fertilizer on a key egg parasitiod of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) (brown planthopper, BPH). Application of N to rice plants significantly prolonged the development time of Anagrus flaveolus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), increased wing size and decreased fecundity of adult females. Importantly, N application to rice plants significantly decreased the per capita parasitism of BPH eggs by A. flaveolus. Utilizing planthopper prey on N-treated rice plants led to reduced searching efficiency of A. flaveolus. Ultimately, the strength of biological control exerted by A. flaveolus was negatively affected by nitrogen application under field conditions. Parasitoids were able to discriminate between BPH infested rice plants with different levels of nitrogen using visual plant cues. We conclude that N fertilizer use can have profound effects on natural enemy efficiency which potentially increase the dependence on insecticides, another potentially hazardous input.

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Key Research & Development Plan of China (Grant No. 2016YFD0200800), the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-01-17) and State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest Control (Grant No. 2010DS700124-ZZ1601).

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Correspondence to Geoff M. Gurr or Zhongxian Lu.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. All applicable International, National and/or Institutional Guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

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Communicated by M. Traugott.

Appendix

Appendix

See Figs. 5, 6 and 7

Fig. 5
figure5

Field trial design for Experiment 4. 0 N: 0 kg/ha; 100 N: 100 kg/ha; 200 N: 200 kg/ha. Pots with plants treated with nitrogen rates of equivalent to 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg/ha were placed in a nested design in the fields

Fig. 6
figure6

Effect of fertilization nitrogen on parasitism rate of Anagrus flaveolus to BPH eggs. The relationship between nitrogen treatment and nitrogen content (N %) under conditions of light (a) and under conditions of darkness (c); Parasitism of A. flaveolus reared on 0 kg/ha (0 N) or 200 kg/ha (200 N) nitrogen treatment plants parasitized BPH eggs on 0 kg/ha (0 N), 50 kg/ha (50 N), 100 kg/ha (100 N) and 200 kg/ha (200 N) nitrogen treatment plants under conditions of light (b) and under conditions of darkness (d)

Fig. 7
figure7

Effect of nitrogen on the parasitism rate of Anagrus flaveolus in rice fields. a The relationship nitrogen treatment and nitrogen content (N %); b The parasitism rate of A flaveolus on BPH eggs on plants with 0 kg/ha (0 N), 50 kg/ha (50 N), 100 kg/ha (100 N) and 200 kg/ha (200 N) nitrogen treatment in fields treated with 0, 100 or 200 kg/ha nitrogen

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Zhu, P., Zheng, X., Xu, H. et al. Nitrogen fertilizer promotes the rice pest Nilaparvata lugens via impaired natural enemy, Anagrus flaveolus, performance. J Pest Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-019-01177-7

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Keywords

  • Biological control
  • Ecological fitness
  • Parasitism preference
  • Parasitic efficiency
  • Functional response