Evaluation of pheromone of false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta in Israel by sequential SPME/GCMS analysis and field trials
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The false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an indigenous pest of citrus and other crops in sub-Saharan areas of Africa. The pest was first recorded in Israel in the 1980s and has remained at low population levels although extending its geographic range. The pest is difficult to detect without pheromone traps, but published information is conflicting about the optimal blend for male capture. In the present work, we used the SSGA method of sequential solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, in which the usual circadian pattern of pheromone release by insects is revealed and characterized. The SSGA method enabled the identification of 11 components that are emitted by female FCM specifically during the “calling” time which coincides with maximum pheromone emission. In addition, pheromone glands of 362 females of different ages in days after eclosion were dissected at the time of day when maximum pheromone emission occurs (SSGA results) in order to obtain the nanogram amounts of pheromone components necessary for identification and quantification. The component mixtures were tested using a subtraction method in both electroantennograms and field trials. The crucial pheromone components for optimal baits are E8-12:Ac and Z8-12:Ac in a ratio of 9:1. Our results suggest that a 1 mg blend of this pheromone inside a closed polyethylene vial, within an IPS trap placed as high as possible in the fruit tree, is suitable for monitoring.
KeywordsFalse codling moth Sequential SPME/GCMS analysis EAG Circadian rhythm Pheromone
This study was supported by a mutual grant from the Chief Scientist of Israeli Ministry of Agriculture and The Israeli Plant Board # 20-15-0029. We thank Mrs. Valeria Sepliarsky, Israeli Plant Protection and Inspection Services, for her help in gland dissections. Thanks also to Mr. Nikolay Kovalev (Biochemtech, Moldova) and Dr. Shams Usmani (Russell IPM, UK) for providing standards.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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