Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 127–134 | Cite as

A CAPS marker for determination of strong phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum from Brazil

  • Zhaorigetu Hubhachen
  • Hongbo Jiang
  • David Schlipalius
  • Yoonseong Park
  • Raul N. C. Guedes
  • Brenda Oppert
  • George Opit
  • Thomas W. PhillipsEmail author
Original Paper


Strong phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum is due to point mutations in DNA that code for amino acid changes of P45S and/or G131S in the enzyme dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD). One allele coding for P45S is the most common in all phosphine-resistant US populations and in one strain from Brazil (TCBR), whereas another allele, G131S, occurs only in Australian beetles. Dose-mortality studies found that the TCBR strain was more resistant to phosphine than US populations. To investigate strong resistance mutations in TCBR, we sequenced cDNA for DLD in TCBR and compared results with a US population from Kansas. The common P45S mutation was detected in both populations, but two additional mutations G131D and V167A were identified only from TCBR. We used a CAPS marker (Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence) for P45S, herein designated M1, to survey this resistance allele in TCBR. We also developed a marker for the G131D mutation, designated M2. Only two genotypes, R1R1S2S2 (homozygous for resistance at M1, but homozygous susceptible at the M2 site) and R1S1R2S2 (heterozygous for resistance at M1 and M2) existed in TCBR. However, phosphine resistance levels were similar between individuals with the two genotypes. Beetles with strong resistance in TCBR may be homozygous for either the presence of the common P45S allele, or heterozygous for two resistance alleles at a second locus, G131D. The strong resistance phenotype in TCBR may be expressed differently based on previously unknown mutations at the DLD locus, but this will require further research to resolve.


Fumigation Insecticide resistance Molecular marker analysis Resistance ratio Resistance genotype 



The authors appreciate suggestions and technical advice on genetics and molecular biology from Drs. Jeremy Marshall and Kun Yan Zhu. The authors also acknowledge the financial support of the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (Project No: PBCRC3035) established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centre Program ( This paper is contribution number 19-176-J of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.


This study was funded by the Australian Plant Biosecurity Center for Cooperative Research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with this agency, among themselves, or with other funding sources or institutions in regard to this article.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Since no human was involved in this study, there was no need to obtain informed consent from any individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10340_2019_1134_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 11 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhaorigetu Hubhachen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongbo Jiang
    • 1
    • 3
  • David Schlipalius
    • 4
  • Yoonseong Park
    • 1
  • Raul N. C. Guedes
    • 5
  • Brenda Oppert
    • 6
  • George Opit
    • 2
  • Thomas W. Phillips
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Entomology, 123 Waters HallKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Entomology and Plant PathologyOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant ProtectionSouthwest UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane, QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  5. 5.Departamento de EntomologiaUniversidade Federal de VicosaVicosaBrazil
  6. 6.Center for Grain and Animal Health ResearchUSDA Agricultural Research ServiceManhattanUSA

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