Multiple acaricide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae on hops
- 50 Downloads
The polyphagous pest Tetranychus urticae feeds on over 1100 plant species including highly valued economic crops such as hops (Humulus lupulus). In the key hop production region of the Pacific Northwest of the USA, T. urticae is one of the major arthropod pests. Over the years, T. urticae control has been dominated by the application of various acaricides. However, T. urticae quickly adapts to these acaricides by developing resistance. Here, we determined resistance ratios of T. urticae populations in hops to three acaricides: etoxazole, fenpyroximate, and spirodiclofen. The mechanisms underlying resistance to these and three other acaricides were investigated in 37 field-collected T. urticae populations using a comprehensive diagnostic approach. Our data showed that T. urticae populations exhibited complex adaptation patterns to acaricides. Resistance to abamectin, fenpyroximate, and spirodiclofen by enhanced target metabolic detoxification gene(s) was identified in 100%, 50%, and 20% of populations tested, respectively. Resistance to bifenthrin, bifenazate, and etoxazole by target site insensitivity was pervasive among tested populations. Our study provides new information in understanding the complexity of T. urticae adaptation to multiple acaricides, which will help in designing sustainable pest control strategies for T. urticae on hops and other economically valuable crops.
KeywordsAcaricide resistance Resistance ratio Molecular markers Target site insensitivity Metabolic detoxification
The authors thank Tora Brooks, Dan Groenendale, Peng Wilson, and members of the Agricultural Entomology lab of WSU IAREC at Prosser, WA, for their help with field mite collection. This research was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) (Award Number 2014-51181-22381), the Hop Research Council, the Washington Hop Commission, the Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration. M.W. was supported by the Education Department of Fujian Province of China.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Bajda S, Dermauw W, Panteleri R, Sugimoto N, Douris V, Tirry L, Osakabe M, Vontas J, Van Leeuwen T (2017) A mutation in the PSST homologue of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Tetranychus urticae is associated with resistance to METI acaricides. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 80:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Demaeght PA (2015). A genomic approach to investigate resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Ph.D., University of AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Demaeght P, Dermauw W, Tsakireli D, Khajehali J, Nauen R, Tirry L, Vontas J, Lummen P, Van Leeuwen T (2013) Molecular analysis of resistance to acaricidal spirocyclic tetronic acids in Tetranychus urticae: CYP392E10 metabolizes spirodiclofen, but not its corresponding enol. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 43:544–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Demaeght P, Osborne EJ, Odman-Naresh J, Grbic M, Nauen R, Merzendorfer H, Clark RM, Van Leeuwen T (2014) High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole in Tetranychus urticae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 51:52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dermauw W, Ilias A, Riga M, Tsagkarakou A, Grbic M, Tirry C, Van Leeuwen T, Vontas J (2012) The cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel gene family of Tetranychus urticae: implications for acaricide toxicology and a novel mutation associated with abamectin resistance. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 42:455–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu N, Zhu F, Xu Q, Pridgeon JW, Gao XW (2006) Behavioral change, physiological modification, and metabolic detoxification: mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Acta Entomol Sin 49:671–679Google Scholar
- O’Neal SD, Walsh DB, Gent DH, Barbour JD, Boydston RA, George AE, James DG, Sirrine JR (2015) Field guide for integrated pest management in hops. U.S. Hop Industry Plant Protection Committee, Pullman, WAGoogle Scholar
- Riga M, Tsakireli D, Ilias A, Morou E, Myridakis A, Stephanou EG, Nauen R, Dermauw W, Van Leeuwen T, Paine M, Vontas J (2014) Abamectin is metabolized by CYP392A16, a cytochrome P450 associated with high levels of acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 46:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Riga M, Myridakis A, Tsakireli D, Morou E, Stephanou EG, Nauen R, Van Leeuwen T, Douris V, Vontas J (2015) Functional characterization of the Tetranychus urticae CYP392A11, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates the METI acaricides cyenopyrafen and fenpyroximate. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 65:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsagkarakou A, Van Leeuwen T, Khajehali J, Ilias A, Grispou M, Williamson MS, Tirry L, Vontas J (2009) Identification of pyrethroid resistance associated mutations in the para sodium channel of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Insect Mol Biol 18:583–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Leeuwen T, Vontas J, Tsagkarakou A, Tirry L (2009) Mechanisms of acaricide resistance in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In: Ishaaya I, Horowitz A (eds) Biorational control of arthropod pests. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Van Leeuwen T, Demaeght P, Osborne EJ, Dermauw W, Gohlke S, Nauen R, Grbic M, Tirry L, Merzendorfer H, Clark RM (2012) Population bulk segregant mapping uncovers resistance mutations and the mode of action of a chitin synthesis inhibitor in arthropods. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:4407–4412CrossRefGoogle Scholar