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Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 309–325 | Cite as

Pheromone-enhanced lure blends and multiple trap heights improve detection of bark and wood-boring beetles potentially moved in solid wood packaging

  • L. FlahertyEmail author
  • J. M. G. Gutowski
  • C. Hughes
  • P. Mayo
  • T. Mokrzycki
  • G. Pohl
  • P. Silk
  • K. Van Rooyen
  • J. Sweeney
Original Paper

Abstract

Exotic bark and wood-boring beetles [Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae (Scolytinae)] are among the most damaging forest pests, and species of quarantine significance are frequently moved intercontinentally. Early detection of these potentially invasive species is critical for their effective management, and while current surveillance methods have intercepted many species, they failed to detect others that subsequently became significant pests. We evaluated the effects of trap height (canopy vs. understory) and lure type (host volatiles vs. blends of host volatiles and pheromones) on the efficacy of detecting bark and wood-boring beetles, with the objective of improving surveillance programs. Adding pheromones to host volatile-baited traps increased the number of species detected, but lure performance (mean catch and detection rate) varied among species. The effects of trap height also varied by taxa; some species were detected more often in the understory (e.g., Scolytinae), and others mainly in the canopy (e.g., Cerambycidae). Species assemblages in traps differed between the canopy and understory and also among lure types. The number of target species detected was increased by using combinations of different pheromone-enhanced lure blends and by placing traps in both the canopy and understory. Applying these results should improve early detection of exotic species commonly moved intercontinentally in wood packaging and products.

Keywords

Invasive species surveillance Early detection Buprestidae Cerambycidae Scolytinae Generic lure blends Trap height 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Science Branch; Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service Forest Invasive Alien Species program; United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service—Plant Protection & Quarantine; MacEwan University; Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency—Atlantic Innovation Fund; and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources (through SERG International) for funds and in-kind support. We also thank the Canadian Department of National Defence and Alberta Transportation for field site access. We thank B Anderson, P Bouchard, D Bright, A Cognato, A Davies, H Douglas, S Laplante, and R Webster for taxonomic expertise, and C Alderson, L Flemming, J Francese, C Gomez, J Hammond, T Kimoto, JP Lafontaine, L Leachman, M Luco, C MacKay, T Nelson, K Sücko, D Tighe, V Webster, D Williams and H Young for technical or administrative support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest relevant to this study. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10340_2018_1019_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (58 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 58 kb)

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Copyright information

© Crown 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Flaherty
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. M. G. Gutowski
    • 2
  • C. Hughes
    • 3
  • P. Mayo
    • 3
  • T. Mokrzycki
    • 4
  • G. Pohl
    • 5
  • P. Silk
    • 3
  • K. Van Rooyen
    • 3
  • J. Sweeney
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesMacEwan UniversityEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Natural ForestsForest Research InstituteBiałowieżaPoland
  3. 3.Natural Resources CanadaCanadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry CentreFrederictonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Forest Protection and EcologyWarsaw University of Life SciencesWarsawPoland
  5. 5.Natural Resources CanadaCanadian Forest Service - Northern Forestry CentreEdmontonCanada

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