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Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 353–359 | Cite as

Effectiveness of Torymus sinensis: a successful long-term control of the Asian chestnut gall wasp in Italy

  • Chiara FerraciniEmail author
  • Ester Ferrari
  • Marianna Pontini
  • Matteo A. Saladini
  • Alberto Alma
Original Paper

Abstract

The biocontrol agent Torymus sinensis has been released into Japan, the USA, and Europe to suppress the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus. In this study, we provide a quantitative assessment of T. sinensis effectiveness for suppressing gall wasp infestations in Northwest Italy by annually evaluating the percentage of chestnuts infested by D. kuriphilus (infestation rate) and the number of T. sinensis adults that emerged per 100 galls (emergence index) over a 9-year period. We recorded the number of T. sinensis adults emerging from a total of 64,000 galls collected from 23 sampling sites. We found that T. sinensis strongly reduced the D. kuriphilus population, as demonstrated by reduced galls and an increased T. sinensis emergence index. Specifically, in Northwest Italy, the infestation rate was nearly zero 9 years after release of the parasitoid with no evidence of resurgence in infestation levels. In 2012, the number of T. sinensis females emerging per 100 galls was approximately 20 times higher than in 2009. Overall, T. sinensis proved to be an outstanding biocontrol agent, and its success highlights how the classical biological control approach may represent a cost-effective tool for managing an exotic invasive pest.

Keywords

Torymus sinensis Dryocosmus kuriphilus Classical biological control Invasive exotic pests 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Elvio Bellini (Chestnut Study and Documentation Centre), Lindsay K. Nova Hernández, Greta Pastorino, Cristina Pogolotti, and Ambra Quacchia for their precious help and cooperation in the laboratory and field activities, and to Daniela Di Silvestro and Giuseppe Siccardi of the Phytosanitary Service of Abruzzo and Liguria, respectively, for their cooperation. The authors would like to thank the referees for their valuable comments which helped to improve the manuscript.

Funding

This study was partially funded by the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (Lobiocin and Bioinfocast projects).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

All the insect rearing and experiments were conducted in accordance with the legislation and guidelines of the European Union for the protection of animals used for scientific purposes (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm). All experimental protocols using insects were approved by the ad hoc Committee of DISAFA of the University of Torino.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 16 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 14 kb)
10340_2018_989_MOESM3_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 16 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari (DISAFA)University of TorinoGrugliascoItaly

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