Advertisement

Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 91, Issue 3, pp 937–941 | Cite as

New PCR–RFLP diagnostics methodology for detecting Varroa destructor resistant to synthetic pyrethroids

  • Anabel Millán-Leiva
  • Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez
  • Joel González-Cabrera
Rapid Communication

Abstract

A significant share of the current seasonal losses of honey bee colonies can be attributed to the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Its direct feeding behaviour and virus vectoring decimate the colony until collapse if there is no effective control management in place. The synthetic pyrethroids such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin were intensively used to control the mite until multiple cases of resistance were reported since the early 1990s. Previous studies have shown that there are three different mutations at amino acid position 925 (L925V, I and M) of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel associated with the resistance to these compounds. Here, we report the development of a new PCR–RFLP methodology to discriminate between susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant Varroa destructor mites. This is a DNA-based assay that proved to be as accurate and robust as the previously reported TaqMan®-based high-throughput genotyping assays but significantly cheaper and more accessible to low-resourced laboratories. It is also easier to identify resistant mites using the new assay. The beekeeping community will surely welcome this new technology since there are very few effective acaricides to deal with the mite. They are aware that pyrethroids can be very effective in absence of resistance so having the possibility to use them as alternative to other compounds as part of an integrated management strategy would be of great help for long-term controlling of the parasite.

Keywords

Varroa mite Acaricides Target-site resistance Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Joel González-Cabrera was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Ramón y Cajal Program (RYC-2013-13834). The work at the Universitat de València was funded by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2015‐65025‐R, MINECO/FEDER, UE) and by Bayer Animal Health GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Joel González-Cabrera and Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez are not employees of Bayer but part of the work carried out at the Universitat de València was supported by a grant from Bayer Animal Health GmbH. There are no more competing interests to declare.

References

  1. Alissandrakis E, Ilias A, Tsagkarakou A (2017) Pyrethroid target site resistance in Greek populations of the honey bee parasite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae). J Apic Res 56:625–630.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.2017.1368822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bak B, Wilde J, Siuda M (2012) Characteristics of north-eastern population of Varroa destructor resistant to synthetic pyrethroids. Med Weter 68:603–606Google Scholar
  3. Bass C, Nikou D, Donnelly MJ, Williamson MS, Ranson H, Ball A, Vontas J, Field LM (2007) Detection of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison of two new high-throughput assays with existing methods. Malar J.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-111 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Baxter JR, Ellis MD, Wilson WT (2000) Field evaluation of Apistan and five candidate compounds for parasitic mite control in honey bees. Am Bee J 140:898–900Google Scholar
  5. Chen YP, Siede R (2007) Honey bee viruses. Adv Virus Res 70:33–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3527(07)70002-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Davies TGE, Field LM, Usherwood PNR, Williamson MS (2007) DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life 59:151–162.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15216540701352042 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Elzen PJ, Eischen FA, Baxter JB, Pettis J, Elzen GW, Wilson WT (1998) Fluvalinate resistance in Varroa jacobsoni from several geographic locations. Am Bee J 138:674–676Google Scholar
  8. Elzen PJ, Baxter JR, Spivak M, Wilson WT (2000) Control of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. resistant to fluvalinate and amitraz using coumaphos. Apidologie 31:437–441.  https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2000134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. González-Cabrera J, Davies TGE, Field LM, Kennedy PJ, Williamson MS (2013) An amino acid substitution (L925V) associated with resistance to pyrethroids in Varroa destructor. PLoS ONE 8:e82941.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082941 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. González-Cabrera J, Rodríguez-Vargas S, Davies TG, Field LM, Schmehl D, Ellis JD, Krieger K, Williamson MS (2016) Novel Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of pyrethroid-resistant Varroa destructor populations from the Southeastern USA. PLoS ONE 11:e0155332.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155332 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Gracia-Salinas MJ, Ferrer-Dufol M, Latorre-Castro E, Monero-Manera C, Castillo-Hernández JA, Lucientes-Curd J, Peribanez-López MA (2006) Detection of fluvalinate resistance in Varroa destructor in Spanish apiaries. J Apic Res 45:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hubert J, Nesvorna M, Kamler M, Kopecky J, Tyl J, Titera D, Stara J (2014) Point mutations in the sodium channel gene conferring tau-fluvalinate resistance in Varroa destructor. Pest Manag Sci 70:889–894.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3679 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim W, Lee M, Han S, Park K, Choi J, Kim J, Choi Y, Jeong G, Koh Y (2009) A geographical polymorphism in a Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel gene in the mite, Varroa destructor, from Korea. Korean J Apic 24:159–165Google Scholar
  14. Milani N (1995) The resistance of Varroa-Jacobsoni Oud to pyrethroids—a laboratory assay. Apidologie 26:415–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Milani N, Della Vedova G (2002) Decline in the proportion of mites resistant to fluvalinate in a population of Varroa destructor not treated with pyrethroids. Apidologie 33:417–422.  https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2002028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mozes-Koch R, Slabezki Y, Efrat H, Kalev H, Kamer Y, Yakobson BA, Dag A (2000) First detection in Israel of fluvalinate resistance in the varroa mite using bioassay and biochemical methods. Exp Appl Acarol 24:35–43.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006379114942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O’Reilly AO, Khambay BPS, Williamson MS, Field LM, Wallace BA, Davies TGE (2006) Modelling insecticide-binding sites in the voltage-gated sodium channel. Biochem J 396:255–263.  https://doi.org/10.1042/Bj20051925 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. O’Reilly AO, Williamson MS, González-Cabrera J, Turberg A, Field LM, Wallace BA, Davies TG (2014) Predictive 3D modelling of the interactions of pyrethroids with the voltage-gated sodium channels of ticks and mites. Pest Manag Sci 70:369–377.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3561 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Panini M, Dradi D, Marani G, Butturini A, Mazzoni E (2014) Detecting the presence of target-site resistance to neonicotinoids and pyrethroids in Italian populations of Myzus persicae. Pest Manag Sci 70:931–938.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3630 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rosenkranz P, Aumeier P, Ziegelmann B (2010) Biology and control of Varroa destructor. J Invertebr Pathol 103:S96–S119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2009.07.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Sammataro D, Untalan P, Guerrero F, Finley J (2005) The resistance of varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) to acaricides and the presence of esterase. Int J Acarol 31:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Thompson HM, Brown MA, Ball RF, Bew MH (2002) First report of Varroa destructor resistance to pyrethroids in the UK. Apidologie 33:357–366.  https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2002027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Voudouris C, Kati AN, Sadikoglou E, Williamson M, Skouras PJ, Dimotsiou O, Georgiou S, Fenton B, Skavdis G, Margaritopoulos JT (2016) Insecticide resistance status of Myzus persicae in Greece: long-term surveys and new diagnostics for resistance mechanisms. Pest Manag Sci 72:671–683.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4036 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang RW, Liu ZQ, Dong K, Elzen PJ, Pettis J, Huang ZY (2002) Association of novel mutations in a sodium channel gene with fluvalinate resistance in the mite, Varroa destructor. J Apic Res 41:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ERI BIOTECMED, Department of GeneticsUniversitat de ValènciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations