Quantitative analysis of contents and volatile emissions from α-copaene and quercivorol lures, and longevity for attraction of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida
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Ambrosia beetles in the cryptic species complex Euwallacea nr. fornicatus vector a fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium dieback, a disease that impacts avocado (Persea americana), woody ornamentals, and numerous native trees in the USA (California, Florida), Israel, and other countries. Currently, these pests are detected with quercivorol lures (containing p-menth-2-en-1-ol isomers), but recent research identified an essential oil enriched in (-)-α-copaene as a new attractant. In this study, lure longevity and efficacy were assessed in three 12-week field tests conducted in Florida by deploying traps baited with quercivorol, α-copaene, and a combination of the two. A fourth test compared different formulations of quercivorol. Concurrent with field experiments, gas chromatographic analyses were conducted to quantify initial lure contents as well as volatile emissions from lures field-aged for 12 weeks. In all tests, the lure combination captured significantly more E. nr. fornicatus than the individual lures; and in two trials, synergistic attraction was observed. Field life of the combination lure was 12 weeks; longevity of single lures varied from 9 to 12 weeks. Twelve terpenoids were detected from the α-copaene-enriched oil, suggesting there may be additional attractants. Analysis of the quercivorol lure showed it contained 88% trans- and 9% cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol. Results indicate that the combination of quercivorol and α-copaene provides a long-lasting, effective lure for early detection of E. nr. fornicatus in Florida. Further research is needed to determine which isomer of p-menth-2-en-1-ol is attractive to Florida E. nr. fornicatus, and if other members of the species complex are attracted to (-)-α-copaene.
KeywordsAmbrosia beetle Diastereomer Enantiomer Fusarium dieback Kairomone p-menth-2-en-1-ol
The authors are grateful to Carlos de la Torre, Arnoldo Paniagua, and John Barkett for providing generous access to their groves, to Louis Dessaint (Brooks Tropicals and Florida Avocado Administrative Committee) for assistance in coordinating field operations, and to Xing-Cong Li (School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi), Richard Mankin (USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL), Jerome Niogret (Niogret Ecology Consulting, Miami, FL), and the journal editor/referees for critical reviews of an earlier version of this manuscript. Use of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by USDA-ARS.
Research was supported by USDA-ARS Appropriated Funds (Mitigation of the Invasive Pest Threat from the American Tropics and Subtropics) and an appointment to the ARS Research Participation Agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the USDA. ORISE is managed by ORAU under DOE contract number DE-SC0014664.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article contains field studies that targeted insect pests and did not involve any protected or endangered species.
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