Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 3–11 | Cite as

Monochamus species from different continents can be effectively detected with the same trapping protocol

  • Celia K. Boone
  • Jon Sweeney
  • Peter Silk
  • Cory Hughes
  • Reginald P. Webster
  • Fred Stephen
  • Lorraine Maclauchlan
  • Barbara Bentz
  • Alain Drumont
  • Boguang Zhao
  • Nick Berkvens
  • Hans Casteels
  • Jean-Claude GrégoireEmail author
Rapid Communication


Pine wilt disease is one of the most serious introduced threats to coniferous forests worldwide. Its causal agent, the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is vectored primarily by cerambycids of the genus Monochamus Dejean throughout its native (North America) and introduced (Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Portugal) ranges. Despite strict import regulations and phytosanitary measures, interception records indicate that PWN and Monochamus species continue to be moved worldwide. Following its introduction in Portugal in the late 1990s, extensive monitoring programs for PWN and its vectors have been conducted throughout the European Union, using locally developed and tested lures and traps. The trapping system developed in Europe and used in this study is composed of a Crosstrap® and Galloprotect Pack® lures. These trapping systems were deployed in two locations in the USA, two locations in Canada, and one location in China in order to test their capacity to detect Monochamus species exotic to Europe. Large numbers of M. carolinensis, M. mutator, M. notatus, M. s. scutellatus, M. clamator, and M. titillator were trapped in North America, while large numbers of M. alternatus were trapped in China. The trapping systems developed in Europe for monitoring the European Monochamus species are also effective for the detection of many exotic Monochamus species and could thus be used as an early detection tool in ports and other high-risk sites.


Longhorn beetle Vector Pine wilt disease Pinewood nematode Traps Lures 



This paper reports some results of the project “Monochamus”, funded by the Belgian Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment. We thank USDA APHIS, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, SERG-International, Forest Protection Limited, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources, and the Atlantic Innovation Fund for funding parts of the research performed in Canada, and the following people for field assistance and insect identification: CFS-AFC: Vincent Webster, Chantelle Alderson, Kate Van Rooyen, and Lisa Leachman; University of Arkansas: Larry Galligan and Ryan Rastok; USDA-FS, Utah: Jim Vandygriff; Nanjing Forestry University: Jifeng Zhou and Yunwei Ju. We also appreciate the comments from the anonymous reviewers which helped improve this paper. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10340_2018_954_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)


  1. Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. For Pathol 42:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison JD, Redak RA (2017) The impact of trap type and design features on survey and detection of bark and woodboring beetles and their associates: a review and meta-analysis. Annu Rev Entomol 62:127–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison JD, Morewood WD, Borden JH, Hein KE, Wilson IM (2003) Differential bio-activity of Ips and Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) pheromone components for Monochamus clamator and M. scutellatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environ Entomol 32:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison JD, Johnson CW, Meeker JR, Strom BL, Butler SM (2011) Effect of aerosol surface lubricants on the abundance and richness of selected forest insects captured in multiple-funnel and panel traps. J Econ Entomol 104:1258–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allison JD, McKenney JL, Millar JG, McElfresh JS, Mitchell RF, Hanks LM (2012) Response of the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to known cerambycid pheromones in the presence and absence of the host plant volatile α-pinene. Environ Entomol 41:1587–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allison JD, Graham EE, Poland TM, Strom BL (2016) Dilution of fluon before trap surface treatment has no effect on longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) captures. J Econ Entomol 109:1215–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Álvarez G, Etxebeste I, Sánchez E, Gallego D, Pajares JA (2013) Effective traps for live trapping of PWN vectors Monochamus spp. In: Schröder, T. (ed.), Pine Wilt Disease Conference 2013, Braunschweig, ISSN: 1866-590X. pp. 14-16Google Scholar
  8. Álvarez G, Etxebeste I, Gallego D, David G, Bonifácio L, Jactel H, Sousa E, Pajares JA (2015) Optimization of traps for live trapping of pine wood nematode vector Monochamus galloprovincialis. J Appl Entomol 139:618–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Álvarez G, Gallego D, Hall DR, Jactel H, Pajares JA (2016) Combining pheromone and kairomones for effective trapping of the pine sawyer beetle Monochamus galloprovincialis. J Appl Entomol 140:58–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berkvens N, Waeyenberge L, Caste els H, de Sutter N, Inácio ML, Fontes AM, Boone C, Grégoire JC, Viaene N (2017) Effects of the wet catching method on the detection of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from trapped longhorn beetle vectors. Nematology 19:671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blatt SE, Bishop C, Sweeney J (2017) Incidence of Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) species in Nova Scotia, Canada Christmas tree plantations and comparison of panel traps and lures from North America and Europe. Can Entomol 149:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonifácio L, Praias F, Sousa E (2012) Trapping Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with pine allelochemicals, in Portugal. Silva Lusitana 20:39–53Google Scholar
  13. Boone CK, Grégoire JC, Drumont A (2015) Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) attracted to semiochemicals used as lures for Monochamus spp. in the Sonian Forest, Brussels-Capital Region Belgium. Bull Soc R Belge d’Entomol 151:122–133Google Scholar
  14. Brockerhoff EG, Liebhold AM, Jactel H (2006) The ecology of forest insect invasions and advances in their management. Can J For Res 36:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costello SL, Negrón JF, Jacobi WR (2008) Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota. J Econ Entomol 101:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Groot P, Nott RW (2004) Response of the whitespotted sawyer beetle, Monochamus s. scutellatus, and associated woodborers to pheromones of some Ips and Dendroctonus bark beetles. J Appl Entomol 128:483–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dodds KJ, Allison JD, Miller DR, Hanavan RP, Sweeney J (2015) Considering species richness and rarity when selecting optimal survey traps: Comparisons of semiochemical baited flight intercept traps for Cerambycidae in eastern North America. Agr For Entomol 17:36–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. El-Sayed AM, Suckling DM, Wearing CH, Byers JA (2006) Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species. J Econ Entomol 99:1550–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. EPPO (2010a) Isolated finding of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Spain. EPPO Rep Serv 2010(3):2Google Scholar
  20. EPPO (2010b) First record of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Galicia (Spain). EPPO Rep Ser 2010(11):3Google Scholar
  21. EPPO (2012) New outbreak of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Spain. EPPO Rep Serv 2012(3):2Google Scholar
  22. EPPO (2014) New outbreak of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Spain. EPPO Rep Ser 2014(2):2Google Scholar
  23. European Council (2006) Commission Decision 2006/133/EC of 13 February 2006 requiring Member States temporarily to take additional measures against the dissemination of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle et al. (the pine wood nematode) as regards areas in Portugal, other than those in which it is known not to occur. Off J Eur Commun L 52, 23.2.2006, 34–38Google Scholar
  24. European Council (2012) Commission Implementing Decision 2012/535/EU of 26 September 2012 on emergency measures to prevent the spread within the Union of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle et al. (the pine wood nematode). Off J Eur Commun L 266, 2.10.2012, 42–52Google Scholar
  25. Fierke MK, Skabeikis DD, Millar JG, Teale SA, McElfresh JS, Hanks LM (2012) Identification of a male-produced aggregation pheromone for Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus and an attractant for the congener Monochamus notatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). J Econc Entomol 105:2029–2034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1980) Western forest insects. USDA–Forest Service, Washington, DC. Misc Pub 1339Google Scholar
  27. Graham EE, Mitchell RF, Reagel PF, Barbour JD, Millar JG, Hanks LM (2010) Treating panel traps with a fluoropolymer enhances their efficiency in capturing cerambycid beetles. J Econ Entomol 103:641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanks LM, Millar JG (2013) Field bioassays of cerambycid pheromones reveal widespread parsimony of pheromone structures, enhancement by host plant volatiles, and antagonism by components from heterospecifics. Chemoecology 23:21–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hanks LM, Millar JG, Mongold-Diers JA, Wong JCH, Meier LR, Reagel PF, Mitchell RF (2012) Using blends of cerambycid beetle pheromones and host plant volatiles to simultaneously attract a diversity of cerambycid species. Can J For Res 42:1050–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Humble LM, Allen EA (2006) Forest biosecurity: alien invasive species and vectored organisms. Can J Plant Pathol 28:S256–S269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ibeas F, Gallego D, Diez JJ, Pajares JA (2007) An operative kairomonal lure for managing pine sawyer beetle Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerymbycidae). J Appl Entomol 131:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jurc M, Hauptman T, Pavlin R, Borkovič D (2016) Target and non-target beetles in semiochemical-baited cross vane funnel traps used in monitoring Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Phytoparasitica 44:151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kelsey RG (1996) Anaerobic induced ethanol synthesis in the stems of greenhouse-grown conifer seedlings. Trees-Struct Funct 10:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kelsey RG, Joseph G (2003) Ethanol in ponderosa pine as an indicator of physiological injury from fire and its relationship to secondary beetles. Can J For Res 33:870–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kelsey RG, Gallego D, Sánchez-García FJ, Pajares JA (2014) Ethanol accumulation during severe drought may signal tree vulnerability to detection and attack by bark beetles. Can J For Res 44:554–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim J, Lee SM, Jung YH, Kwon YD, Kim DS, Lee DW, Park CG (2016) Field evaluation on the synergistic attractiveness of 2-(1-undecyloxy)-1-ethanol and ipsenol to Monochamus saltuarius. Entomol Res 46:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee HR, Lee SC, Lee DH, Choi WS, Jung CS, Jeon JH, Kim JE, Park IK (2017) Identification of the aggregation-sex pheromone produced by male Monochamus saltuarius, a major insect vector of the pine wood nematode. J Chem Ecol 43:670–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Linit MJ (1988) Nematode-vector relationships in the pine wilt disease system. J Nematol 20:227–235Google Scholar
  39. Miller DR (2006) Ethanol and (-)-α-pinene: attractant kairomone for some large wood-boring beetles in southeastern USA. J Chem Ecol 32:779–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Miller DR, Asaro C (2005) Ipsenol and ipsdienol attract Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and associated large pine woodborers in southeastern United States. J Econ Entomol 98:2033–2040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller DR, Dodds KJ, Eglitis A, Fettig CJ, Hofstetter RW, Langor D, Mayfield AE, Munson AS, Poland TM, Raffa KF (2013) Trap lure blend of pine volatiles and bark beetle pheromones for Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in pine forests of Canada and the United States. J Econ Entomol 106:1684–1692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller DR, Crowe CM, Mayo PD, Silk PJ, Sweeney JD (2015) Responses of Cerambycidae and other insects to traps baited with ethanol, 2, 3-hexanediol, and 3, 2-hydroxyketone lures in north-central Georgia. J Econ Entomol 108:2354–2365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller DR, Allison JD, Crowe CM, Dickinson DM, Eglitis A, Hofstetter RW, Munson AS, Poland TM, Reid LS, Steed BE, Sweeney JD (2016) Pine sawyers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) attracted to α-pinene, monochamol, and ipsenol in North America. J Econ Entomol 109:1205–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morewood WD, Hein KE, Katinic PJ, Borden JH (2002) An improved trap for large wood-boring insects, with special reference to Monochamus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Can J For Res 32:519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mota M, Braasch H, Bravo MA, Penas AC, Burgermeister W, Metge K, Sousa E (1999) First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematology 1:727–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Naves PM, Camacho S, De Sousa EM, Quartau JA (2006) Entrance and distribution of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on the body of its vector Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Entomol Gen 29:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pajares JA, Álvarez G, Ibeas F, Gallego D, Hall DR, Farman DI (2010) Identification and field activity of a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis. J Chem Ecol 36:570–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pajares JA, Álvarez G, Hall DR, Douglas P, Centeno F, Ibarra N, Schroeder M, Teale SA, Wang Z, Yan S, Millar JG, Hanks LM (2013) 2-(Undecyloxy)-ethanol is a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Monochamus sutor. Entomol Exp Appl 149:118–127Google Scholar
  49. Pajares JA, Álvarez G, Hall DR, Ibarra N, Hoch G, Halbig P, Cocoş D, Johansson H, Schroeder M (2017) Attractants for management of the pine sawyer beetle Monochamus sutor, a potential vector of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. J Appl Entomol 141:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pimentel CS, Ayres MP, Vallery E, Young C, Streett DA (2014) Geographical variation in seasonality and life history of pine sawyer beetles Monochamus spp: its relationship with phoresy by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Agr For Entomol 16:196–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rassati D, Toffolo EP, Battisti A, Faccoli M (2012) Monitoring of the pine sawyer beetle Monochamus galloprovincialis by pheromone traps in Italy. Phytoparasitica 40:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rassati D, Toffolo EP, Roques A, Battisti A, Faccoli M (2014) Trapping wood boring beetles in Italian ports: a pilot study. J Pest Sci 87:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ryall K, Silk P, Webster RP, Gutowski JM, Meng Q, LinY Gao W, Fidgen J, Kimoto T, Scarr T, Mastro V, Sweeney JD (2014) Further evidence that monochamol is attractive to Monochamus spp., with attraction synergized by host plant volatiles and bark beetle pheromones. Can Entomol 147:564–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sanchez-Husillos E, Etxebeste I, Pajares J (2015) Effectiveness of mass trapping in the reduction of Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Col.: Cerambycidae) populations. J Appl Entomol 139:747–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sanchez-Husillos E, Etxebeste I, Pajares J (2016) Physiological development and dispersal ability of newly emerged Monochamus galloprovincialis. Entomol Exp Appl 161:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sousa E, Bravo MA, Pires J, Naves P, Penas AC, Bonifácio L, Mota MM (2001) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda; Aphelenchoididae) associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae) in Portugal. Nematology 3:89–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Teale SA, Wickham JD, Zhang F, Su J, Chen Y, Xiao W, Hanks LM, Millar JG (2011) A male-produced aggregation pheromone for Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a major vector of pine wood nematode. J Econ Entomol 104:1592–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Celia K. Boone
    • 1
  • Jon Sweeney
    • 2
  • Peter Silk
    • 2
  • Cory Hughes
    • 2
  • Reginald P. Webster
    • 3
  • Fred Stephen
    • 4
  • Lorraine Maclauchlan
    • 5
  • Barbara Bentz
    • 6
  • Alain Drumont
    • 7
  • Boguang Zhao
    • 8
  • Nick Berkvens
    • 9
  • Hans Casteels
    • 9
  • Jean-Claude Grégoire
    • 10
    Email author
  1. 1.Lutte biologique et Ecologie spatiale, Université Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest ServiceAtlantic Forestry CentreCharters SettlementCanada
  3. 3.Charters SettlementCanada
  4. 4.Department of EntomologyUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  5. 5.British Columbia Department of Forest, Lands and Natural Resource OperationsVancouverCanada
  6. 6.USDA, Forest Service; Rocky Mountain Research StationFort CollinsUSA
  7. 7.Royal Belgian Institute of Natural SciencesBrusselsBelgium
  8. 8.Department of Forest ProtectionNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina
  9. 9.Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Plant – Crop Protection – EntomologyFort CollinsUSA
  10. 10.Lutte biologique et Ecologie spatiale, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. DBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations