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Monochamus species from different continents can be effectively detected with the same trapping protocol

  • Celia K. Boone
  • Jon Sweeney
  • Peter Silk
  • Cory Hughes
  • Reginald P. Webster
  • Fred Stephen
  • Lorraine Maclauchlan
  • Barbara Bentz
  • Alain Drumont
  • Boguang Zhao
  • Nick Berkvens
  • Hans Casteels
  • Jean-Claude Grégoire
Rapid Communication

Abstract

Pine wilt disease is one of the most serious introduced threats to coniferous forests worldwide. Its causal agent, the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is vectored primarily by cerambycids of the genus Monochamus Dejean throughout its native (North America) and introduced (Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Portugal) ranges. Despite strict import regulations and phytosanitary measures, interception records indicate that PWN and Monochamus species continue to be moved worldwide. Following its introduction in Portugal in the late 1990s, extensive monitoring programs for PWN and its vectors have been conducted throughout the European Union, using locally developed and tested lures and traps. The trapping system developed in Europe and used in this study is composed of a Crosstrap® and Galloprotect Pack® lures. These trapping systems were deployed in two locations in the USA, two locations in Canada, and one location in China in order to test their capacity to detect Monochamus species exotic to Europe. Large numbers of M. carolinensis, M. mutator, M. notatus, M. s. scutellatus, M. clamator, and M. titillator were trapped in North America, while large numbers of M. alternatus were trapped in China. The trapping systems developed in Europe for monitoring the European Monochamus species are also effective for the detection of many exotic Monochamus species and could thus be used as an early detection tool in ports and other high-risk sites.

Keywords

Longhorn beetle Vector Pine wilt disease Pinewood nematode Traps Lures 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper reports some results of the project “Monochamus”, funded by the Belgian Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment. We thank USDA APHIS, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, SERG-International, Forest Protection Limited, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources, and the Atlantic Innovation Fund for funding parts of the research performed in Canada, and the following people for field assistance and insect identification: CFS-AFC: Vincent Webster, Chantelle Alderson, Kate Van Rooyen, and Lisa Leachman; University of Arkansas: Larry Galligan and Ryan Rastok; USDA-FS, Utah: Jim Vandygriff; Nanjing Forestry University: Jifeng Zhou and Yunwei Ju. We also appreciate the comments from the anonymous reviewers which helped improve this paper. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10340_2018_954_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Celia K. Boone
    • 1
  • Jon Sweeney
    • 2
  • Peter Silk
    • 2
  • Cory Hughes
    • 2
  • Reginald P. Webster
    • 3
  • Fred Stephen
    • 4
  • Lorraine Maclauchlan
    • 5
  • Barbara Bentz
    • 6
  • Alain Drumont
    • 7
  • Boguang Zhao
    • 8
  • Nick Berkvens
    • 9
  • Hans Casteels
    • 9
  • Jean-Claude Grégoire
    • 10
  1. 1.Lutte biologique et Ecologie spatiale, Université Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest ServiceAtlantic Forestry CentreCharters SettlementCanada
  3. 3.Charters SettlementCanada
  4. 4.Department of EntomologyUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  5. 5.British Columbia Department of Forest, Lands and Natural Resource OperationsVancouverCanada
  6. 6.USDA, Forest Service; Rocky Mountain Research StationFort CollinsUSA
  7. 7.Royal Belgian Institute of Natural SciencesBrusselsBelgium
  8. 8.Department of Forest ProtectionNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina
  9. 9.Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Plant – Crop Protection – EntomologyFort CollinsUSA
  10. 10.Lutte biologique et Ecologie spatiale, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. DBrusselsBelgium

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