Comparative expression of two detoxification genes by Callosobruchus maculatus in response to dichlorvos and Lippia adoensis essential oil treatments

  • Mazarin Akami
  • Nicolas Y. Njintang
  • Olajire Gbaye
  • Chang-Ying Niu
  • E-N Nukenine
Original Paper


The cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a field-to-store pest, which can cause up to 80% damage of cowpea grains within 3 months of storage. The control approach consisting of application of synthetic pesticides has become challenging following the increased resistance and toxicity to non-target organisms and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that Lippia adoensis essential oil (EO) (plant-based insecticide) can repress cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes and suppress C. maculatus resistance to dichlorvos (O,O-dimethyl-O-2,2-dichlorovinylphosphate or DDVP). The methods consisted of separately exposing C. maculatus adults to cowpea seeds treated with DDVP and L. adoensis EO. Their physiological and molecular responses were monitored for five generations. Adult mortality of DDVP-treated beetles significantly decreased across generations and negatively correlated with the reproduction parameters (increase in fecundity and adult emergence) and seed damage. Similarly, the decrease in adult susceptibility corresponded with the increase in the expression levels of cytochrome P450 and GST genes (overexpression of genes). However, the adult susceptibility to EO treatments remained consistent across generations and correlated with the down-regulation of targeted genes from the third generation (F3). These results support our hypotheses and provide a probable molecular basis of resistance to DDVP and susceptibility to L. adoensis EO in C. maculatus. Therefore, L. adoensis EO represents an alternative insecticide that could be employed to enhance the vulnerability of this pest.


Cytochrome P450 Glutathione-S-transferase Cowpea beetle Pesticide biotransformation Fitness parameters Detoxification 



We thank the Chinese Government for the scholarship (2015120T22) granted to the first author and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31661143045), Agricultural Public Welfare Industry Research supported by Ministry of Agriculture of People’s Republic of China (201503137) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2662015PY148) (CYN) for providing funding for this work. Special thanks are due to Professor Kun Yan Zhu (College of Agriculture, Department of Entomology, Kansas State University), Dr Awawing A. Andongma, and Dr Adnan Muhammad Rashid (College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University) for their advice and technical assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any study with human or animal participants performed by any of the authors. The study was approved by the Scientific Committee of the Faculty of Science and validated by the Scientific Committee of the University of Ngaoundere (Cameroon) (Decision Number 2015/093) in a full PhD program assigned to the first author.

Supplementary material

10340_2018_1075_MOESM1_ESM.docx (139 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 138 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of NgaoundereNgaoundereCameroon
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, National School of Agro-Industrial SciencesUniversity of NgaoundereNgaoundereCameroon
  4. 4.Department of BiologyFederal University of TechnologyAkureNigeria

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