Trichogramma parasitoids can distinguish between fertilized and unfertilized host eggs
- 230 Downloads
Host quality varies with size, age, and species, and influences the parasitism preference of parasitoids and the fitness of their offspring. However, it is still unclear whether parasitoids have the ability to recognize fertilized and unfertilized host eggs. We studied the performance of three Trichogramma species, T. japonicum, T. chilonis, and T. leucaniae, on both fertilized and unfertilized eggs of their host Corcyra cephalonica at different host ages. In no-choice tests, three Trichogramma species parasitized significantly more fertilized than unfertilized eggs when host age was 0 days old. In choice tests, all parasitoids parasitized significantly more fertilized than unfertilized eggs at all host ages. Furthermore, the frequency of fertilized eggs visited by Trichogramma parasitoids were significantly higher than those of unfertilized eggs. The number of unfertilized eggs visited by parasitoids without ovipositing was approximately 3.7 times greater than those of fertilized eggs. In addition, all Trichogramma parasitoids developed significantly faster on fertilized than unfertilized eggs at all host ages. In summary, we find that Trichogramma were able to recognize fertilized and unfertilized host eggs in parasitism, which is conducive to biological control programs, since unfertilized eggs enlarge the host reservoir for parasitoid augmentation.
KeywordsTrichogramma Unfertilized host egg Host suitability Host selection
We thank Prof. Shoushan Huang for the Trichogramma species identification. This research was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (SQ2017ZY060059), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31572058). The granting agencies had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or manuscript preparation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
- Cagnotti CL, Hernandez CM, Andormo AV, Viscarret M, Riquelme M, Botto EN, Lopez SN (2016) Acceptability and suitability of Tuta absoluta eggs from irradiated parents to parasitism by Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Agric For Entomol 18:198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Desneux N, Starỳ P, Delebecque CJ, Gariepy TD, Barta RJ, Hoelmer KA, Heimpel GE (2009b) Cryptic species of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Asia: Binodoxys communis Gahan and Binodoxyx koreanus Stary sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 102:925–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Godfray HCJ (1994) Behavioral and evolutionary ecology. In: Krebs JR, Clutton-Brock T (eds) Parasitoids. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Li LY (1994) Worldwide use of Trichogramma for biological control on different crops: a survey. In: Wajnberg E, Hassan SA (eds) Biological control with egg parasitoids. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 37–51Google Scholar
- Pak GA, Oatman ER (1982) Biology of Trichogramma brevicapillum. Entomol Exp Appl 32:61–67Google Scholar
- Pinto JD (1992) Novel taxa of Trichogramma from the New World tropics and Australia (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). J N Y Entomol 100:621–633Google Scholar
- Zhang JJ, Du WM, Ruan CC, Zang LS, Sun GZ (2012) Effect of different artificial diets on growth, development and fecundity of Corcyra cephalonice. J Jilin Agric Univ 34:603–606Google Scholar
- Zhang JJ, Ruan CC, Zang LS, Shao XW, Shi SS (2015) Technological improvements for mass production of Trichogramma and current status of their applications for biological control on agricultural pests in China. Chin J Biol Control 31:638–646Google Scholar