Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 91, Issue 2, pp 699–705 | Cite as

Susceptibility of selected stored product insects to a combination treatment of pyriproxyfen and novaluron

  • F. H. Arthur
  • K. L. Hartzer
Original Paper


There are many published studies of either insect growth regulators (IGR) or chitinase inhibitors applied directly to larvae of stored product insects or incorporated into their diets, but few studies evaluating efficacy of IGRs or chitinase inhibitors applied alone or in combination with a surface for residual control. Tests were conducted to evaluate susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle, and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer), the hide beetle, to Tekko® Pro which contained the IGR pyriproxyfen and the chitinase inhibitor novaluron as active ingredients. Efficacy was assessed by adult emergence of exposed immatures, an index based on development of those exposed immatures, and progeny production of exposed adults. Concrete arenas were treated with the label rate of the insecticide applied to a surface, and bioassays were conducted at 0–16 weeks post-treatment. No exposed T. castaneum eggs or larvae reached the adult stage and index values for exposed eggs and larvae remained near the minimum. Adult emergence of T. variable from eggs or larvae did not exceed 25% for the first 8 weeks of the test, but at the end of the test at 16 weeks adult emergence was 44 and 71%, respectively, for eggs and larvae. No eggs or larvae of D. maculatus emerged as adults, but excessive cannibalization in untreated controls occurred throughout the test. Results show that Tekko® Pro will give residual control of T. castaneum and T. variabile, and could replace older conventional neurotoxic insecticides for management of stored product insects.


Insect growth regulators Chitinase inhibitors Stored product insects Development 



We thank the Industrial Fumigant Company for providing the Tekko® Pro insecticide used in the study. This paper reports the results of research only. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The US Department of Agriculture is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no known conflict of interest regarding the research. The insecticide was provided by a local pest management company, and no outside funding was received for the research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA, Agricultural Research ServiceCenter for Grain and Animal Health ResearchManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Ricketsial Zoonoses Branch, MS-G-13, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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