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Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 90, Issue 4, pp 1219–1229 | Cite as

Use of substrate-borne vibrational signals to attract the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys

  • Valerio MazzoniEmail author
  • Jernej Polajnar
  • Marta Baldini
  • Marco Valerio Rossi Stacconi
  • Gianfranco Anfora
  • Roberto Guidetti
  • Lara Maistrello
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite the increasing number of studies on the use of acoustic stimuli to control agricultural pests, this approach is still theoretical. Many insect pests, in particular hemipterans, use vibrational signals for mating communication, and therefore the application of a control strategy based on acoustic interference is a promising option. The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, is causing severe economic damage to many crops in the USA and Italy. We tested a female vibrational signal, female signal 2 (FS2), to attract males in different settings, such as natural substrates, arenas and a cage representing an acoustic trap. We used video-tracking analysis and described the vibrational amplitude field around the individuals to study the male behavior. We found that FS2 can attract more than 50% of males to the source point and has a strong “loitering” effect on searching males that tend to remain in the stimulated area. We concluded that FS2 exhibits good attractiveness to H. halys males and that its potential use as a tool integrated into the currently existing pheromone traps should be tested in the field.

Keywords

Biotremology Acoustic traps Integrated pest management Behavioral bioassays Hemiptera 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the grant ‘Innovative tools and protocols for monitoring and sustainable control of the alien stink bug H. halys, a new phytosanitary threat, and of other harmful heteropterans for the fruit crops of the territory of Modena’ (2013.065) of ‘Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena’.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest involving the authors.

Animal rights statement

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Human rights statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10340_2017_862_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (4.7 mb)
Online Resource 1 Scheme and vibrational amplitude field of the bean plants used in Test 1. Two bean plants were grown together in one pot having only one contact point at approximately mid-stem length. The mini-shaker (SH) was moved after each trial and thus the stimulated leaf (e.g., Lf1-SP) was randomly changed. The male releasing point was randomized among the non stimulated leaves. The Audio Sampling Points (ASPs) are indicated with black dots. Four of them were placed on the leaves (Lf1–Lf4) and other four on the stems (St1–St4). The mean (±SD) amplitude of the playback signal (as substrate velocity in μm/s) is reported. Different letters indicate significant differences between amplitude values recorded from the ASPs (p < 0.05) after Friedman’s test with replication followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test (TIFF 4827 kb)
10340_2017_862_MOESM2_ESM.tiff (3.5 mb)
Online Resource 2 Scheme of the arenas used in Test 2 (A) and Test 3 (B). (A) In Test 2, the mini-shaker was placed in direct contact with the arena surface. Four different Video Sampling Areas (VSA-T2), corresponding with as many Audio Sampling Points (ASP) were defined, one of them at the Stimulation Point (SP) and the others opposite (FR) and laterally (L1 and L2) to it. An additional ASP was placed on the Releasing Point (RP). (B) In Test 3, the SP was set at the external end of a paperboard rod and only two VSAs (VSA-T3) were defined, around the internal ends of the SP and FR rods, respectively. As a whole, the vibrational amplitude field was measured from 19 ASPs, 12 of them on the arena surface (a1–a8 plus L1, L2 and two inside each VSA) and 6 of them on the rods (SP, b1 and b2 on the vibrated rod, and b3, b4 and FR on the non-vibrated one). In (A), amplitude values (as substrate mean ± SD velocity in μm/s) are reported for each ASP; different letters indicate significant differences between amplitude values recorded from the ASPs (p < 0.05) after Friedman’s test with replication, followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test (TIFF 3570 kb)
10340_2017_862_MOESM3_ESM.tiff (5.5 mb)
Online Resource 3 Scheme (3D, above, and flattened diagram, below) of the acoustic trap used in Test 4. As a whole, 45 Audio Sampling Points (ASPs) were placed: 36 ASPs on the upper (Ceiling), lateral (Sides 1 and 2) and back (Back) faces (nine per face) of the net cage. Other four ASPs were placed on the Front face, two on the net Sleeve, one on the plastic Plastic funnel and two on the Cylinder, including the Stimulation Point (SP). Males were released inside the net cage (TIFF 5637 kb)
10340_2017_862_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (14 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 13 kb)
10340_2017_862_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (15 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 14 kb)
10340_2017_862_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (6 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (PDF 6 kb)
10340_2017_862_MOESM7_ESM.mp4 (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material 7 (MP4 1437 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fondazione Edmund MachSan Michele all’adigeItaly
  2. 2.National Institute of BiologyLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.University of Modena and Reggio EmiliaReggio EmiliaItaly
  4. 4.Center Agriculture Food Environment (CAFE)University of TrentoTrentoItaly

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