Evaluation of high tunnels for management of Drosophila suzukii in fall-bearing red raspberries: Potential for reducing insecticide use
- 623 Downloads
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit causing significant damage on a variety of fruit crops in North America, Europe, and Asia. In North America, fall-bearing fruit, such as primocane raspberries, ripen when D. suzukii populations peak and thus are vulnerable to high levels of infestation. In recent years, growers in northern climates have increased raspberry production under protected culture (high tunnels), resulting in season extension, increased yield, and improved fruit quality. High tunnels may be used as a pest management tool by physically excluding insect pests. This study investigated whether D. suzukii can be excluded from fall-bearing raspberries cultivated under tunnels covered with plastic or fine mesh netting, and whether this production technique can improve fruit marketability and serve as an alternative to insecticide application. We found that berries in plastic-covered tunnels had low season-long levels of infestation by D. suzukii (mean = 2 %), compared to netted tunnels (35 %), insecticide-treated open plots (60 %) and untreated open plots (81 %). Our microclimate data show that temperature and humidity levels inside the plastic-covered tunnels were often outside the previously published optimal temperature range for development, mating, and/or oviposition for D. suzukii, and may have therefore limited overall population growth. We conclude that exclusion and modification of microclimate may be effective and complementary pest management strategies for fall-fruiting raspberry and serve as an alternative to insecticide applications, particularly for small-acreage and organic production systems.
KeywordsSpotted wing drosophila Asian vinegar fly Rubus idaeus Invasive species High tunnel
We thank Suzanne Wold-Burkness, Theresa Cira, Connor Mikre, Ignasi Riera Vila, and Anita Gorder for field and technical assistance.
This work was supported through funding from USDA NIFA Regional Integrated Pest Management Competitive Grants Program—North Central Region award number 2013-34103-21338, the University of Minnesota Rapid Agricultural Response Fund, and the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Asplen MK, Anfora G, Biondi A, Choi D-S, Chu D, Daane KM, Gibert P, Gutierrez AP, Hoelmer KM, Hutchison WD, Isaacs R, Jiang Z-L, Kárpáti Z, Kimura MT, Pascual M, Philips CP, Plantamp C, Ponti L, Vétek G, Vogt H, Walton VM, Yu Y, Zappalà L, Desneux N (2015) Invasion biology of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): a global perspective and future priorities. J Pest Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10340-015-0681-z Google Scholar
- Cini A, Ioriatti C, Anfora G (2012) A review of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and a draft research agenda for integrated pest management. Bull Insectol 65:149–160Google Scholar
- Cormier D, Veilleux J, Firlej A (2015) Exclusion net to control spotted wing Drosophila in blueberry fields. IOBC-WPRS Bull 109:181–184Google Scholar
- Demchak K (2009) Small fruit production in high tunnels. HortTechnology 19:44–49Google Scholar
- Hanson E, Von Weihe M, Schilder AC, Chanon AM, Scheerens JC (2011) High tunnel and open field production of floricane-and primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars. HortTechnology 21:412–418Google Scholar
- Kawase S, Uchino K, Yasuda M, Motoori S (2008) Netting control of cherry Drosophila Drosophila suzukii injurious to blueberry. Bull Chiba Prefect Agric Res Cent 7:9–15Google Scholar
- Ogden AB, van Iersel MW (2009) Southern highbush blueberry production in high tunnels: temperatures, development, yield, and fruit quality during the establishment years. HortScience 44:1850–1856Google Scholar
- Perkins-Veazie P, Nonnecke G (1992) Physiological changes during ripening of raspberry fruit. HortScience 27:331–333Google Scholar
- SAS Institute (2014) Base SAS 9.4 Procedures Guide: statistical procedures. SAS Institute Inc, CaryGoogle Scholar
- Tuohimetsä S, Hietaranta T, Uosukainen M, Kukkonen S, Karhu S (2014) Fruit development in artificially self-and cross-pollinated strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) and raspberries (Rubus idaeus). Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 64:408–415Google Scholar
- Wien HC (2009) Microenvironmental variations within the high tunnel. HortScience 44:235–238Google Scholar
- Yao S, Rosen CJ (2011) Primocane-fruiting raspberry production in high tunnels in a cold region of the upper Midwestern United States. HortTechnology 21:429–434Google Scholar