Aphid parasitoid generalism: development, assessment, and implications for biocontrol
- 573 Downloads
Host specialization in aphid parasitoids is important both from a theoretical and an applied point of view. It arises from various ecological mechanisms involving their interactions with aphids, host plants, and endosymbiotic bacteria, as well as with potential competitors and enemies. From an applied point of view, host specialization in aphid parasitoids has a great importance as it determines the biological control they provide through their capacity to switch between different hosts, to persist in the agrosystem in the absence of the pest, and to regulate pest outbreaks in a rapidly changing system. It also conditions the risk of undesirable effects on non-target species in the case of introduction or augmentation of populations of parasitoids. Biocontrol literature that looks at the benefits of generalist and specialists natural enemies is mainly focused on differences between different guilds of natural enemies and does not consider the differences in host specialization within a single guild. This review synthesizes the mechanisms related to host-use by aphid parasitoids, focusing on the differences between generalist and specialist species. Second, this work describes the difficulty to determine the host range of generalist parasitoid species. Our review points out some observational artifacts, as is the existence of cryptic species or spatiotemporal variability in host acceptance, which may lead to misinterpretations about host specialization and result in pest management failures. Regarding biological control services, moderately generalized species that could use various host species to sustain their populations may ensure the long-term control, whereas specialist species would provide higher parasitism rates. At the community level, the co-occurrence of specialist and generalist parasitoids may maximize biological control services both in terms of efficiency and in terms of stability in space and time.
KeywordsAphid parasitoids Biological control Host specialization Polyphagy
The authors would like to thank the helpful comments from all reviewers with which this review was greatly improved. For funding, the authors would like to thank project APHIDWEB 611810 Structure, strength and invasibility of aphid food webs-Marie Curie Actions—International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES) and Fondecyt Grant 1110341 to BL for financial support and travel grants to MP and LR. LR was supported by Millennium Nucleus Center ICM NC120027.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals and Informed Consent
Not applicable to the described work.
- Abrahamson WG, Blair CA (2008) Sequential radiation through host-race formation: herbivore diversity leads to diversity in natural enemies. In: Tilmon KJ (ed) Specialization, speciation and radiation: the evolutionary biology of herbivorous insects. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
- Barahoei H, Rakhshani E, Madjdzadeh SM et al (2013) Aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of central submountains of Iran. North West J Zool 9:70–93Google Scholar
- Barahoei H, Rakhshani E, Nader E et al (2014) Checklist of Aphidiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their host aphid associations in Iran. J Crop Prot 3:199–232Google Scholar
- Fuentes-Contreras JE, Powell W, Wadhams LJ et al (1996) Influence of wheat and oat cultivars on the development of the cereal aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi and the generalist aphid parasitoid Ephedrus plagiator. Ann Appl Biol 129:181–187. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1996.tb05742.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Godfray HCJ (1994) Parasitoids, behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Krespi L (1990) Etude de la biocénose parasitaire des pucerons des céréales dans le bassin de Rennes : cas particulier d’Aphidius uzbekistanicus. PhD Thesis, Université de Rennes 1Google Scholar
- Mackauer M, Starý P (1967) World Aphidiidae: hym. Ichneumonoidea, vol 2. Le Francois, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Price PW (1980) Evolutionary biology of parasites. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Quicke DLJ (1997) Parasitic wasps. Kluwer Academic Publishers, LondresGoogle Scholar
- Remaudiere G, Starý P (1994) Arrivée spontanée en région parisienne de l’hyménoptère aphidiide Pauesia cedrobii, parasite du puceron du cèdre Cedrobium laportei. Rev française d’entomologie 15:157–158Google Scholar
- Smith MA, Rodriguez JJ, Whitfield JB et al (2008) Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:12359–12364. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805319105 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Starý P (1973) A review of the Aphidius species (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae) of Europe. Slovenské národné múzeum v Bratislave, BratislavaGoogle Scholar
- Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T, Lewis OT (2007) Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host-parasitoid food webs. Nature 445:202–205. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v445/n7124/suppinfo/nature05429_S1.html
- Van Emden HF, Storeck AP, Douloumpaka S, Eleftherianos I et al (2008) Plant chemistry and aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Imprinting and memory. Eur J Entomol 105(3):477–483. ISSN 1210-5759 105:477–483Google Scholar
- Zepeda-Paulo FA, Lavandero B, Maheo F, Dion E, Outreman Y, Simon JC, Figueroa CC (2015) Does sex-biased dispersal account for the lack of geographic and host-associated differentiation in introduced populations of an aphid parasitoid? Ecol Evol. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1504 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar