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Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 7–20 | Cite as

Aphid parasitoid generalism: development, assessment, and implications for biocontrol

  • Lucie Raymond
  • Manuel Plantegenest
  • Vesna Gagic
  • Yoann Navasse
  • Blas Lavandero
Review

Abstract

Host specialization in aphid parasitoids is important both from a theoretical and an applied point of view. It arises from various ecological mechanisms involving their interactions with aphids, host plants, and endosymbiotic bacteria, as well as with potential competitors and enemies. From an applied point of view, host specialization in aphid parasitoids has a great importance as it determines the biological control they provide through their capacity to switch between different hosts, to persist in the agrosystem in the absence of the pest, and to regulate pest outbreaks in a rapidly changing system. It also conditions the risk of undesirable effects on non-target species in the case of introduction or augmentation of populations of parasitoids. Biocontrol literature that looks at the benefits of generalist and specialists natural enemies is mainly focused on differences between different guilds of natural enemies and does not consider the differences in host specialization within a single guild. This review synthesizes the mechanisms related to host-use by aphid parasitoids, focusing on the differences between generalist and specialist species. Second, this work describes the difficulty to determine the host range of generalist parasitoid species. Our review points out some observational artifacts, as is the existence of cryptic species or spatiotemporal variability in host acceptance, which may lead to misinterpretations about host specialization and result in pest management failures. Regarding biological control services, moderately generalized species that could use various host species to sustain their populations may ensure the long-term control, whereas specialist species would provide higher parasitism rates. At the community level, the co-occurrence of specialist and generalist parasitoids may maximize biological control services both in terms of efficiency and in terms of stability in space and time.

Keywords

Aphid parasitoids Biological control Host specialization Polyphagy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the helpful comments from all reviewers with which this review was greatly improved. For funding, the authors would like to thank project APHIDWEB 611810 Structure, strength and invasibility of aphid food webs-Marie Curie Actions—International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES) and Fondecyt Grant 1110341 to BL for financial support and travel grants to MP and LR. LR was supported by Millennium Nucleus Center ICM NC120027.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals and Informed Consent

Not applicable to the described work.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Ciencias BiológicasUniversidad de TalcaTalcaChile
  2. 2.Millennium Nucleus Centre in Molecular Ecology and Evolutionary Applications in Agroecosystems (CEM)TalcaChile
  3. 3.Agrocampus OuestRennesFrance
  4. 4.CSIROBrisbaneAustralia

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