Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 207–217 | Cite as

First report on Meloidogyne chitwoodi hatching inhibition activity of essential oils and essential oils fractions

  • Jorge Miguel Silva Faria
  • Inês Sena
  • Bruno Ribeiro
  • Ana Margarida Rodrigues
  • Carla Maria Nobre Maleita
  • Isabel Abrantes
  • Richard Bennett
  • Manuel Mota
  • Ana Cristina da Silva Figueiredo


The Columbia root-knot nematode (CRKN), Meloidogyne chitwoodi, is an EPPO A2 type quarantine pest since 1998. This nematode causes severe damage in economically important crops such as potato and tomato, making agricultural products unacceptable for the fresh market and food processing. Commonly used nematicidal synthetic chemicals are often environmentally unsafe. Essential oils (EOs) may constitute safer alternatives against RKN. EOs, isolated from 56 plant samples, were tested against CRKN hatching, in direct contact bioassays. Some of the most successful EOs were fractionated and the hydrocarbon molecules (HM) and oxygen-containing molecules (OCM) fractions tested separately. 24 EOs displayed very strong hatching inhibitions (≥90 %) at 2 µL mL−1 and were further tested at lower concentrations. Dysphania ambrosioides, Filipendula ulmaria, Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs revealed the lowest EC50 values (<0.15 µL mL−1). The main compounds of these EOs, namely 2-undecanone, ascaridol, carvacrol, isoascaridol, methyl salicylate, p-cymene and/or γ-terpinene, were putatively considered responsible for CRKN hatching inhibition. S. montana and T. capitata OCM fractions showed hatching inhibitions higher than HM fractions. The comparison of EO and corresponding fractions EC50 values suggests interactions between OCM and HM fractions against CRKN hatching. These species EOs showed to be potential environmentally friendly CRKN hatching inhibitors; nonetheless, bioactivity should be considered globally, since its HM and OCM fractions may contribute, diversely, to the full anti-hatching activity.


Columbia root-knot nematode Dysphaniaambrosioides Filipendula ulmaria Ruta graveolens Satureja montana Thymbra capitata 



The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr José Barroso, Prof. Dr Luis Pedro, Prof. Dr Graça Miguel, Prof. Dr Helena Trindade, Dr Diara Kady, M.Sc.’s Sofia Lima, Natacha Moura and Marta Taveira (Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, CBV), Lic. Pedro Barbosa (Universidade de Évora), Dr Leandra Rodrigues (Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa), Dr Marta Mendes (Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa), Prof. Dr Kiril Bahcevandziev (Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra), Cacial – Cooperativa Agrícola de Citricultores do Algarve, C.R.L., and Eng. João Sanches (Mata Experimental do Escaroupim, Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas), for providing some of the plant material and/or for the technical support. Jorge Faria is grateful to the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) for the Ph.D. grant SFRH/BD/43 738/2008. This study was partially funded by FCT, under Pest–OE/EQB/LA0023/2011 and research contract PTDC/AGR-CFL/117026/2010.

Supplementary material

10340_2015_664_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (104 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 103 kb)


  1. Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd-Elgawad M, Omer EA (1995) Effect of essential oils of some medicinal plants on phytonematodes. Anz. Schadlingsk. Pfl. 68:82–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrés MF, Gonzáles-Coloma A, Sanz J, Burillo J, Sainz P (2012) Nematicidal activity of essential oils: a review. Phytochem Rev 11:371–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bai CQ, Liu ZL, Liu QZ (2011) Nematicidal constituents from the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides aerial parts. E-J Chem 8:S143–S148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbosa P, Lima AS, Vieira P, Dias LS, Tinoco MT, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Figueiredo AC, Mota M (2010) Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. J Nematol 42:8–16PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbosa P, Faria JMS, Mendes MD, Dias LS, Tinoco MT, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Figueiredo AC, Mota M (2012) Bioassays against pinewood nematode: assessment of a suitable dilution agent and screening for bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17:12312–12329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Batish DR, Singh HP, Kohli RK, Kaur S (2008) Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide. For Ecol Manag 256:2166–2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conceição IL, Cunha MJM, Feio G, Correia M, Santos MCV, de Abrantes IMO, Santos MSNA (2009) Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., on potato in Portugal. Nematology 11:311–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Council of Europe (2010) European pharmacopoeia. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, Strasbourg, p 241Google Scholar
  10. Dias MC, Conceição IL, de Abrantes IMO, Cunha MJ (2012) Solanum sisymbriifolium - a new approach for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Eur J Plant Pathol 133:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Douda O, Zouhar M, Mazáková J, Nováková E, Pavela R (2010) Using plant essences as alternative mean for northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) management. J Pest Sci 83:217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Echeverrigaray S, Zacaria J, Beltrão R (2010) Nematicidal activity of monoterpenoids against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Phytopathology 100:199–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. EPPO (2012) Data sheets on quarantine pests: Meloidogyne chitwoodi. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  14. FAO (2009) International year of the potato 2008, New light on a hidden treasure. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Faria JMS, Barbosa P, Bennett RN, Mota M, Figueiredo AC (2013) Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters. Phytochemistry 94:220–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Faria JMS, Sena I, Maleita CM, Vieira da Silva I, Ascensão L, Abrantes I, Bennett RN, Mota M, Figueiredo AC (2014) In vitro co-culture of Solanum tuberosum hairy roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi: structure, growth and production of volatiles. Plant Cell Tissue Organ cult 118:519–530Google Scholar
  17. Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Scheffer JJC (2008) Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: volatile components and essential oils. Flavour Frag. J. 23:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gokte N, Maheshwari ML, Mathur VK (1991) Nematicidal activity of few essential oils against root-knot and cyst nematode species. Indian J Nematol 21:123–127Google Scholar
  19. Golden AM, O’Bannon JH, Santo GS, Finley AM (1980) Description and SEM observations of Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode on potato in the Pacific Northwest. J Nematol 12:319–327PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. GraphPad Prism® version 5.00 for windows, graphpad software, San Diego California USA. Accessed 18 Jan 2014
  21. Gupta A, Sharma S, Naik SN (2011) Biopesticidal value of selected essential oils against pathogenic fungus, termites, and nematodes. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 65:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hussey RS, Barker KR (1973) A comparison of methods of collection inocula of Meloidogyne spp., including a new technique. Plant Dis Rep 57:1025–1028Google Scholar
  23. Ibrahim SK, Traboulsi AF, El-Haj S (2006) Effect of essential oils and plant extracts on hatching, migration and mortality of Meloidogyne incognita. Phytopatholog Mediterr 45:238–246Google Scholar
  24. Kang JS, Moon YS, Lee SH, Park IK (2013) Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) by aliphatic compounds. Pestic Biochem Phys 105:184–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim J, Seo SM, Park IK (2011) Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from Gaultheria fragrantissima and Zanthoxylum alatum against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Nematology 13:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kong JO, Park IK, Choi KS, Shin SC, Ahn YJ (2007) Nematicidal and propagation activities of thyme red and white oil compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: parasitaphelenchidae). J Nematol 39:237–242PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumrungsee N, Pluempanupat W, Koul O, Bullangpoti V (2014) Toxicity of essential oil compounds against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and their impact on detoxification enzyme activities. J Pest Sci 87:721–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leela NK, Khan RM, Reddy PP, Nidiry ESJ (1992) Nematicidal activity of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Nematol Mediterr 20:57–58Google Scholar
  29. Loake G, Grant M (2007) Salicylic acid in plant defence—the players and protagonists. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:466–472CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Meyer SLF, Lakshman DK, Zasada IA, Vinyard BT, Chitwood DJ (2008) Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Pest Manag Sci 64:223–229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mitkowski NA, Abawi GS (2003) Root-knot nematodes. The Plant Health Instructor. doi: 10.1094/PHI-I-2003-0917-01 Google Scholar
  32. Moharramipour S, Negahban M (2014) Plant essential oils and pest management. In: Sahayaraj K (ed) Basic and applied aspects of biopesticides. Springer, India, pp 129–153Google Scholar
  33. Ntalli NG, Ferrari F, Giannakou I, Menkissoglu-Spiroudi U (2011a) Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of terpenes against Meloidogyne incognita and the nematicidal activity of essential oils from seven plants indigenous to Greece. Pest Manag Sci 67:341–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ntalli NG, Manconi F, Leonti M, Maxia A, Caboni P (2011b) Aliphatic ketones from Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) induce paralysis on root-knot nematodes. J Agr Food Chem 59:7098–7103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. OEPP, EPPO (2009) Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Meloidogyne fallax. EPPO Bulletin 39:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oka Y, Nacar S, Putievsky E, Ravid U, Yaniv Z, Spiegel Y (2000) Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode. Phytopathology 90:710–715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Pérez MP, Navas-Cortés JA, Pascual-Villalobos MJ, Castillo P (2003) Nematicidal activity of essential oils and organic amendments from Asteraceae against root-knot nematodes. Plant Pathol 52:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pestana MH, Gageiro JN (2000) Análise de dados para ciências sociais. A complementaridade do SPSS. Edições Sílabo, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  39. Pinkerton JN, Santo GS, Ponti RP, Wilson JH (1986) Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in commercially grown Russet Burbank potatoes. Plant Dis 70:860–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rohlf JF (2000) NTSYS-pc, Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, version 2.1, user guide. Applied biostatistics, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Schenk UR, Hildebrandt AC (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can J Bot 50:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Seefeldt SS, Jensen JE, Fuerst EP (1995) Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose response relationships. Weed Technol 9:218–227Google Scholar
  43. Wesemael WML, Viaene N, Moens M (2011) Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in Europe. Nematology 13:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Miguel Silva Faria
    • 1
  • Inês Sena
    • 1
  • Bruno Ribeiro
    • 2
  • Ana Margarida Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Carla Maria Nobre Maleita
    • 3
  • Isabel Abrantes
    • 4
  • Richard Bennett
    • 5
  • Manuel Mota
    • 2
  • Ana Cristina da Silva Figueiredo
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar LisboaFaculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, CBV, DBVLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.NemaLab, ICAAM - Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais MediterrânicasUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  3. 3.CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia QuímicaUniversidade de CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  4. 4.IMAR-CMA, Departamento de Ciências da VidaUniversidade de CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  5. 5.Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

Personalised recommendations