Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 86, Issue 1, pp 19–27

The molecular identification and genetic diversity of economically important wireworm species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in Canada

  • Carly M. Benefer
  • W. G. van Herk
  • J. S. Ellis
  • R. P. Blackshaw
  • R. S. Vernon
  • M. E. Knight
Original Paper
  • 602 Downloads

Abstract

Click beetle larvae (wireworms) are significant crop pests in Europe and North America. In Canada, there are ~30 economically important species which are morphologically difficult to identify, but for which sequence data are lacking. Accurate knowledge of damage-causing species and the population genetics and phylogeography of elaterids will provide insight into their sustainable management. Here, we use interspecific variation in mitochondrial 16S rRNA as a robust method of identification, consider the intra- and interspecific genetic variation of some important Canadian wireworm pests and assess the genetic structure and isolation by distance for a re-emerging major pest species, Hypnoidus bicolor Eschscholtz. Wireworms were sampled from Canada and the USA, identified as morphospecies, and sequenced at the 16S rRNA region (294–442 bp). Within some species unusually high intraspecific genetic distances between samples suggested the possibility of cryptic wireworm species or misidentifications, though this was <1 % for most species. Phylogenetic analyses gave some indication of the likely identity of these ambiguous samples. There was a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distance and significant genetic structuring within and between H. bicolor populations, which appeared to be composed of two species comprising several haplotypes. These data provide a starting point for determining the distribution of damage-causing species throughout Canada. The inclusion of data from other nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and use of sequence data from known adult samples, would further aid identification and relationships of wireworm species.

Keywords

Click beetles 16S rRNA Mitochondrial DNA Mantel test AMOVA Pest 

Supplementary material

10340_2012_454_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (59 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 58 kb)
10340_2012_454_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (17 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 16 kb)
10340_2012_454_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (36 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 35 kb)
10340_2012_454_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (37 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 37 kb)
10340_2012_454_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (8 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 7 kb)

References

  1. Al Dhafer HM (2009) Revision of the North American Species of Limonius (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Trans Am Entomol Soc 135(3):209–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandelt H-J, Forster P, Röhl A (1999) Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol 16:37–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker EC (1956) Revision of the nearctic species of Agriotes (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Can Entomol 88(Suppl 1):1–101Google Scholar
  4. Behura SK (2006) Molecular marker systems in insects: current trends and future avenues. Mol Ecol 15:3087–3113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benefer CM (2011) The molecular and behavioural ecology of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in agricultural land. PhD Thesis, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. Benefer CM, Andrew P, Blackshaw RP, Ellis JS, Knight ME (2010) The spatial distribution of phytophagous insect larvae in grassland soils. Appl Soil Ecol 45:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benefer CM, Knight ME, Ellis JS, Hicks H, Blackshaw RP (2012) Understanding the relationship between adult and larval Agriotes distributions: the effect of sampling method, species identification and abiotic variables. Appl Soil Ecol 53:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bocakova M, Bocak L, Hunt T, Teravainen M, Vogler AP (2007) Molecular phylogenetics of Elateriformia (Coleoptera): evolution of bioluminescence and neoteny. Cladistics 23:477–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bousquet Y (1991) Elateridae. In: Bousquet Y (ed) Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Agriculture Canada Publication 1861/E, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks AR (1960) Adult Elateridae of southern Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Coleoptera). Can Entomol 92(Suppl 20):63Google Scholar
  11. Campbell JM, Sarazin MJ, Lyons DB (1989) Canadian beetles (Coleoptera) injurous to crops, ornamentals, stored products, and buildings. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  12. Doane JF (1977) Spatial pattern and density of Ctenicera destructor and Hypolithus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in soil in spring wheat. Can Entomol 109:807–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellis JS, Blackshaw RP, Parker W, Hicks H, Knight ME (2009) Genetic identification of morphologically cryptic agricultural pests. Agric For Entomol 11:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Excoffier L, Lischer HEL (2010) Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Mol Ecol Resour 10(3):564–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fitzpatrick BM (2009) Power and sample size for nested analysis of molecular variance. Mol Ecol 18(19):3961–3966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fluxus Technology Ltd. (2010) Network 4.6.0.0. User Guide [online]. http://www.fluxus-engineering.com/sharenet.htm#ug. Accessed 4 Oct 2011
  17. Glen R (1950) Larvae of the elaterid beetles in the tribe Leptuoidini (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 111(11)Google Scholar
  18. Glen R, King KM, Arnason AP (1943) The identification of wireworms of economic importance in Canada. Can J Res 11:358–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hillis DM, Mable BK, Moritz C (1996) Applications of molecular systematics: the state of the field and a look to the future. In: Hillis DM, Moritz C, Mable BK (eds) Molecular systematics, 2nd edn. Sinauer Associates Inc., SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  20. Jensen JL, Bohonak AJ, Kelley ST (2005) Isolation by distance, web service. BMC Genet. v.3.16Google Scholar
  21. Johnson PJ (2009) Classification of the Nearctic genera of Elateridae [online]. http://www.sdstate.edu/ps/Severin-McDaniel/project-elater/canada-contintentalus/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&PageID=688179. Accessed 15 Aug 2011
  22. Krafsur ES, Endsley MA (2002) Microsatellite diversities and gene flow in the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans s.l. Med Vet Entomol 16:292–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Librado P, Rozas J (2009) DnaSP v. 5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25:1451–1452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lindroth E, Clark TL (2009) Phylogenetic analysis of an economically important species complex of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the Midwest. J Econ Entomol 102:743–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Majka CG, Johnson PJ (2008) The Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: taxonomic changes, new records, faunal composition, collecting history and zoogeography. Zootaxa 1811:1–33Google Scholar
  26. Nei M, Kumar S (2000) Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Nicholls JA, Double MC, Rowell DM, Magrath RD (2000) The evolution of cooperative and pair breeding in Thornbills Acanthiza (Pardalotidae). J Avian Biol 31:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olson LE, Yoder AD (2002) Using secondary structure to identify ribosomal numts: cautionary examples from the human genome. Mol Biol Evol 19:93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ravel S, Monteny N, Olmos DV, Verdugo JE, Cuny G (2001) A preliminary study of the population genetics of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Mexico using microsatellite and AFLP markers. Acta Trop 78:241–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Richly E, Leister D (2004) NUMTs in sequenced eukaryotic genomes. Mol Biol Evol 21:1081–1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sagegami-Oba R, Oba Y, Ôhira H (2007) Phylogenetic relationships of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) inferred from 28S ribosomal DNA: insights into the evolution of bioluminescence in Elateridae. Mol Phylogenet Evol 42:410–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schultheis AS, Weigt LA, Hendricks AC (2002) Gene flow, dispersal, and nested clade analysis among populations of the stonefly Peltoperla tarteri in the southern Appalachians. Mol Ecol 11:317–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Staudacher K, Pitterl P, Furlan L, Cate PC, Traugott M (2011a) PCR-based species identification of Agriotes larvae. Bull Entomol Res 101:201–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Staudacher K, Schallhart N, Pitterl P, Wallinger C, Brunner N, Landl M, Kromp B, Glauninger J, Traugott M (2011b) Occurrence of Agriotes wireworms in Austrian agricultural land. J Pest Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10340-011-0393-y. Accessed 15 Aug 2011
  35. Stibick JNL (1978) A revision of the Hypnoidinae of the world (Col. Elateridae). Part II. The Hypnoidinae of North and South America. Eos 52:309–386Google Scholar
  36. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr121
  38. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vahtera V, Muona J, Lawrence JF (2009) Phylogeny of the Thylacosterninae (Coleoptera, Elateridae). Cladistics 25:147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. van Emden FI (1945) Larvae of British beetles V. Elateridae. Entomol Mon Mag 81:13–36Google Scholar
  41. Vernon RS (2004) A ground-based pheromone trap for monitoring Agriotes lineatus and A. obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J Entomol Soc BC 101:141–142Google Scholar
  42. Wilkinson ATS (1963) Wireworms of cultivated land in British Columbia. Proc Entomol Soc BC 60:3–17Google Scholar
  43. Zacharuk RY (1958) Note on two forms of Hypolithus bicolor Esch. (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Can Entomol 90:567–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zacharuk RY (1962) Distribution, habits, and development of Ctenicera desctructor (Brown) in Western Canada, with notes on the related species aeripennis (Kby.). Can J Zool 40:539–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carly M. Benefer
    • 1
  • W. G. van Herk
    • 2
  • J. S. Ellis
    • 3
  • R. P. Blackshaw
    • 1
  • R. S. Vernon
    • 2
  • M. E. Knight
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Agricultural and Rural SustainabilityUniversity of PlymouthPlymouthUK
  2. 2.Pacific Agri-Food Research CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaAgassizCanada
  3. 3.School of Science & The EnvironmentManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations