Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 82, Issue 3, pp 295–303 | Cite as

The seasonal activity of flea beetles in Bulgaria

  • Teodora B. Toshova
  • Éva Csonka
  • Mitko A. Subchev
  • Miklós Tóth
Original Paper

Abstract

Using allyl-isothiocyanate-baited traps, we recorded six species of flea beetles in cabbage and horseradish crops in the region of Sofia, Bulgaria in 2006 and 2007. The most abundant species in the traps was Ph. cruciferae (92–96%) followed by Ph. vittula, Ph. undulata and Ph. nigripes. The overwintering adults of these species emerge before the beginning of April and are active to the end of May–beginning of June. Catches of adults of the new generation occurred from the end of June–beginning of July to the second half of October–beginning of November. In 2006, air temperature and humidity strongly influenced the catches of the flea beetles. Investigations of the reproductive status of field collected females of Ph. cruciferae showed that this species develops one generation per year in the region. The results of this study can be used in integrated pest management approach to flea beetles control.

Keywords

Phyllotreta Seasonal monitoring Allyl-isothiocyanate Bulgaria Climatic factors 

References

  1. Altieri MA, Nicholls CI (2003) Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems. Soil Till Res 72:03–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen CL, Hazzard R, Van Driesche R, Mangan FX (2005) Overwintering and seasonal patterns of feeding and reproduction in Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the Northeastern United States. Environ Entomol 34(4):794–800Google Scholar
  3. Andersen CL, Hazzard R, Van Driesche R, Mangan FX (2006) Alternative management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Brassica rapa in Massachusetts. J Econ Entomol 99(3):803–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonnemaison L (1965) Insect pests of crucifers and their control. Annu Rev Entomol 10:233–256. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.10.010165.001313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buresh I, Lazarov A (1956) Insect pests for agriculture and forestry in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  6. Burgess L (1981) Winter sampling to determine overwintering sites and estimate density of adult flea beetle pests of rape (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Can Entomol 113:441–447Google Scholar
  7. Cagáň L, Tóth P, Tóthová M (2006) Population dynamics of Chaetocnema tibialis Illiger and Phyllotreta vittula (Redtenbacher) on the weed Amaranthus retroflexus L. and cultivated Amaranthus caudatus L. Plant Prot Sci 42(2):73–80Google Scholar
  8. Cárcamo HA, Otani JK, Dosdall LM, Blackshaw RE, Clayton GW, Harker KN, O’Donovan JT, Entz T (2008) Effects of seeding date and canola species on seedling damage by flea beetles in three ecoregions. J Appl Entomol 132(8):623–631. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2008.01298.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dillard HR, Cobb AC, Lamboy JS (1998) Transmission of Alternaria brassicicola to cabbage by flea beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae). Plant Dis 82:153–157. doi:10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.2.153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dosdall LM, Stevenson FC (2005) Managing flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in canola with seeding date, plant density, and seed treatment. Agron J 97:1570–1578. doi:10.2134/agronj2005.0097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eber S (2004) Bottom-up density regulation in the holly leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis. J Anim Ecol 73:948–958. doi:10.1111/j.0021-8790.2004.00867.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Furth DG (1988) The jumping apparatus of flea beetles (Alticinae)—the metafemoral spring. In: Jolivet P, Petitpierre E, Hsiao TH (eds) The biology of Chrysomelidae. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  13. Gao Z, Wu W, Cui Z, Liang G (2005) Effects of environmental factors on Phyllotreta striolata dispersion. Chin J Appl Ecol 16(06):1082–1085Google Scholar
  14. Garcia MA, Altieri MA (1992) Explaining differences in flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze densities in simple and mixed broccoli cropping systems as a function of individual behavior. Entomol Exp Appl 62(3):201–209. doi:10.1007/BF00353439 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glits M (2000) Retekmozaik. In: Glits M. és Folk Gy (eds) Kertészeti növénykórtan. Mezőgazda Kiadó, 422Google Scholar
  16. Grigorov SP (1972) Special entomology. Zemisdat, Sofia (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  17. Gruev B, Tomov V (1986) Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae. Part II. Chrysomelinae, Galerucinae, Alticinae, Hispinae, Cassidinae. In: Josifov M (ed) Fauna Bulgarica, vol 16. Academie Scientiarium Bulgaricae, Sofia (In Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  18. Gruev B, Tomov V (1998) Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae. In: Catalogus Faunae Bulgaricae, 3. Pensoft Publ., Sofia, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaszab Z (1962) Levélbogarak - Chrysomelidae. In: Fauna Hungariae, 63., Akadémia Kiadó, Budapest (In Hungarian)Google Scholar
  20. Kinoshita GB, Svec HJ, Harris CR, McEwan FL (1979) Biology of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in southwestern Ontario. Can Entomol 11:1395–1407Google Scholar
  21. Lazarov A, Popov V, Dirimanov MD (1959) Entomology. Zemisdat, Sofia (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  22. Mihailova P, Straka F, Apostolov I (1982) Plant protection forecasting and signalization. Zemisdat, Sofia (In Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  23. Nikolov N, Hristova D, Karadzhova O, Nikolova V, Ivanov V, Nikolov P, Tomeva E (2006) Good plant protection practice for cabbage crops. Bull Natl Plant Prot Serv 2/046(1):237–247 in BulgarianGoogle Scholar
  24. Popov VI (1962) Special entomology. Zemisdat, Sofia (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  25. Popov V, Nikolova V (1958) Pests on vegetable crops in Bulgaria and their control. BAS, Sofia (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  26. Ryden K (1989) Brome mosaic virus, transmission and effect on yield in greenhouse trials. J Phytopathol 124:256–258Google Scholar
  27. Ryden K (1990) Bromusmosaikvirus i strasad. Vaxtskyddsnotiser 54:81–85Google Scholar
  28. Saharan GS, Mehta N, Sangwan MS (2005) Diseases of oilseed crops. Indus Publishing Co., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  29. Shelton AM, Hunter JE (1985) Evaluation of the potential of the flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae, to transmit Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, causal agent of black rot of crucifers. Can J Plant Pathol 7:308–310Google Scholar
  30. Shukla A, Kumar A (2003) Seasonal incidence of flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze.) infesting cabbage. Plant Prot Bull Faridabad 55(1/2):20–22Google Scholar
  31. SPSS for Windows, Rel. 11.0.1. 2001. Chicago: SPSS IncGoogle Scholar
  32. Stobbs LW, Cerkauskas RF, Lowery T, Van-Driel L (1998) Occurence of turnip yellow mosaic virus on Oriental cruciferous vegetables in southern Ontario, Canada. Plant Dis 82:351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Subedi IP, Vaidya K (2003) Control of flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) using locally available natural resources. Him J Sci 1(2):111–114Google Scholar
  34. Tahvanainen JO, Root RB (1972) The influence of vegetational diversity on the population ecology of a specialized herbivore, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Oecologia 10:321–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tóth M, Csonka É, Szarukán I, Vörös G, Furlan L, Imrei Z, Vuts J (2006) The KLP+ (“hat”) trap, a non-sticky, attractant baited trap of novel design for catching the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica v. virgifera) and cabbage flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Int J Hortic Sci 12:57–62Google Scholar
  36. Tóth M, Csonka É, Bakcsa F, Benedek P, Szarukán I, Gomboc S, Toshova T, Subchev M, Ujváry I (2007) Species spectrum of flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) attracted to allyl isothiocyanate-baited traps in Hungary, Slovenia and Bulgaria. Z Naturforsch 62c(9/10):772–778Google Scholar
  37. Trdan S, Valič N, Žnidarčič D, Vidrih M, Bergant K, Zlatič E, Milevoj L (2005) The role of Chinese cabbage as a trap crop for flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in production of white cabbage. Sci Hort 106:12–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ulmer BJ, Dosdall LM (2006) Emergence of overwintered and new generation adults of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Crop Prot 25(1):23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Asch M, Visser ME (2007) Phenology of forest caterpillars and their host trees: the importance of synchrony. Ann Rev Entomol 52:37–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Veromann E, Luik E, Metspalu L, Williams I (2006a) Key pests and their parasitoids on spring and winter oilseed rape in Estonia. Entomol Fennica 17:400–404Google Scholar
  41. Veromann E, Tarang T, Kevväi R, Luik A, Williams IH (2006b) Insect pest and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia: impact of cropping systems. Agric Food Sci 15:61–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vig K (1991) The effect of the photoperiod on the life cycle of Phyllotreta flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Elytron 5:269–274Google Scholar
  43. Vig K (1998) Biology of the crucifer flea beetle in Hungary (Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze, 1777) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Alticinae). VIth European Congress of Entomology, Ceské Budéjovice, 203Google Scholar
  44. Vig K (2003) Biology of Phyllotreta (Alticinae), with emphasis on Hungarian and European species. In: Jolivet P, Santiago-Blay JA, Schmitt M (eds) New developments in the biology of Chrysomelidae. SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague, pp 565–576Google Scholar
  45. Westdal PH, Romanow W (1972) Observations on the biology of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Manit Entomol 6:35–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teodora B. Toshova
    • 1
  • Éva Csonka
    • 2
  • Mitko A. Subchev
    • 1
  • Miklós Tóth
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of ZoologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Plant Protection InstituteHungarian Academy of SciencesBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations