Effects of alternative pesticides on greenhouse whitefly in protected cultivation
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The greenhouse trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of environmentally safe insecticides/fungicides with physical mode of action [Agri-50E (propylene glycol alginate, hydrated) and SB Plant Invigorator] against Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The efficacy of Agri-50E on adults and nymphs (first, second, third, and fourth instars) was compared to the commercially available standard Boxer 200 SL (imidacloprid) and an untreated control on greenhouse-grown poinsettia. Insecticides were applied by foliar spraying, Agri-50E (2 or 3 ml/l) two times and Boxer 200 SL (1 ml/l) once. Three and 7 days after first application (DAFA), imidacloprid was more effective than both concentrations of Agri-50E in controlling T. vaporariorum adults, whereas 10 DAFA there were no differences between insecticides. Twelve DAFA, imidacloprid was more effective than Agri-50E in controlling first, second and third instars and after 19 days in controlling second, third, and fourth instars. The results obtained from the poinsettia study, indicated that Agri-50E (2 or 3 ml/l) is successful in controlling T. vaporariorum adults and moderately effective against T. vaporariorum immature stages. In the second experiment, the efficacy of Agri-50E on adults was compared to SB Plant Invigorator (SBPI), the standard treatment Calypso 480 SC (thiacloprid), and an untreated control on greenhouse-grown tomato. Agri-50E (3 ml/l) and SBPI (2 ml/l) were applied four times while Calypso 480 SC (0.4 ml/l) was applied twice. The results obtained from tomato study showed that SBPI was the most effective insecticide against T. vaporariorum adults, followed by Agri-50E and Calypso 480 EC. Beside the ecological benefits, the alternative insecticides Agri-50E and SBPI might have an important role to play in future pest management programs.
KeywordsAlternative insecticides Developmental stages Imidacloprid IPM Thiacloprid Triaeurodes vaporariorum
The authors thank Marija Bilic for her valuable technical help, and Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports grant (TP_01/0091_01) and Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry, Bosnia and Herzegovina (GR-06-C.1-7) for partial funding of this study.
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