Advertisement

Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 80, Issue 4, pp 191–197 | Cite as

Contribution of cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds and ornamental plants in harboring of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and associated parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in cotton agroecosystem in Pakistan

  • Muhammad NaveedEmail author
  • Abdus Salam
  • Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem
Original Paper

Abstract

The population dynamics of Bemisia tabaci and its parasitoids was studied on Gossypium hirsutum, Cucumis melo, Helianthus annus, Glycine max, Solanum melangena, Cucurbita pepo melopopo, Bauhinia pupurea, Morus alba, Albizzia lebbek, Lantana camara, Achyranthus aspera, and Convolvulus arvensis in cotton growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan during 2004 and 2005. Whitefly infested leaves having maximum number of second to third instar were collected and kept in glass petri dishes with lid on at 28 ± 2°C and 65 ± 3% RH. Mean population of whitefly adults that emerged per 200 cm2 leaf area per sampling period recorded was maximum on G. hirsutum (43.2), followed by C. melo (31.5), L. camara (23.0), H. annus (20.5), G. max (19.3), C. pepo melopopo (18.1), S. melangena (16.9), A. aspera (11.2), C. arvensis (9.2), B. pupurea (5.4), M. alba (5.3) and A. lebbek (5.0). Percentage parasitism was higher on G. hirsutum (44.3%), followed by C. melo (38.9%), A. aspera (38.3%), L. camara (38.1%), A. lebbek (35.3%), G. max (33.5%), C. arvensis (33.0%), M. alba (31.1%), B. pupurea (27.0%), S. melangena (24.8%), C. pepo melopopo (16.1%) and H. annus (15.2%). Overall the population of whitefly remained low during winter (November–February) and high during summer (May–August) whereas, the percentage parasitism was higher during June–September and lower during December–February. The study revealed that the availability of parasitoids could be enhanced by planting L. camara, B. pupurea, A. lebbek and M. alba in the cotton growing area.

Keywords

Bemisia tabaci Cotton Host plants Parasitoids Biological control Pakistan 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Professor Jian Huang, Director, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China for identification of parasitoid samples collected from different hosts and for providing technical information.

References

  1. Attique MR, Rafique M, Ghaffar A, Ahmad Z, Mohyuddin AI (2003) Hosts of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Crop Prot 22:715–720Google Scholar
  2. Bellows TSJR, Arakawa K (1988) Dynamics of preimaginal populations of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Eretmocerus sp. (Hymenoptera Aphelinidae) in Southern California cotton. Environ Entomol 17:483–487Google Scholar
  3. Butler GD Jr, Henneberry TJ (1993) Ars-112, p 94Google Scholar
  4. Cock MJW (1994) Integrated management of whitefly pest problems in the middle and near East with special emphasis on biological control. Arab J Plant Prot 12:127–136Google Scholar
  5. Coghlan A (1995) Crop killer lurks in festive foliage. New Scientist 24/31 December 8Google Scholar
  6. Coudriet DL, Meyerdirk DE, Prabhaker N, Kishaba AN (1986) Bionomics of sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on weed hosts in the Imperial valley, California. Environ Entomol 15:1179–1183Google Scholar
  7. Faria M, Wraight SP (2001) Biological control of Bemisia tabaci with fungi. Crop Prot 20:767–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Faust RM (1992) Conference report and 5-year national research and action plan for development of management and control methodology for the sweetpotato whitefly. Bemisia Newslett 8:7Google Scholar
  9. Gameel OI (1970) The effect of whitefly on cotton. In: Sidding MA, Hughes LC (eds) Cotton growth in the Gezira environment. Agric Res Corp, Wad Medani, pp 265–280Google Scholar
  10. Gerling D (1984) The overwintering mode of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hompotera, Aleyrodidae). ARS-125, p 51Google Scholar
  11. Gerling D, Alomar O, Arno J (2001) Biological control of Bemisia tabaci using predators and parasitoids. Crop Prot 20:779–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greathead DJ, Bennett FD (1981) Possibilities for the use of biotic agents in the control of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Biocontrol News Informat 2:1–7Google Scholar
  13. Godfrey LD, Goodell PB, Summer CG, Bentley WJ, Prather T, Coviello R (1994) Contribution of crop and weed hosts to silverleaf whitefly populations in the San Joaquin Valley. ARS-125, p 15Google Scholar
  14. Habibi J (1975) The cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (bioecology and methods of control). Entomol Phytopathol Appl 38:13–36 (in Persian, with English abstract)Google Scholar
  15. Henneberry TJ, Toscano NC, Faust RM, Coppedge JR (1993) Sweetpotato whitefly 1993 supplement for the 5-year national research and action plan—first annual review held in Tempe Arizona 18–21 January 1993. ARS-112, p 178Google Scholar
  16. Henneberry TJ, Toscano NC, Faust RM, Coppedge JR (1994) Silverleaf whitefly (formerly sweetpotato whitefly strain B) 1994 supplement to the 5-year national research and action plan. ARS-125, p 224Google Scholar
  17. Khalifa A, El-Khidir E (1964) Biological study on Trialeurodes lubia and Bemisia tabaci (Aleyrodidae). Bull Soc Entomol Egypte 48:115–129Google Scholar
  18. Lopez-Avila A (1986) Natural enemies. In: Cock MJW (ed) Bemisia tabaci—a literature survey on the cotton whitefly with an annotated bibilography. CAB International Institute of Biological Control, Ascot, pp 27–35Google Scholar
  19. Melamed-Madjar V, Cohen S, Chen M, Tam S, Rosillo D (1979) Observations on populations of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton adjacent to sunflower and potato in Israel. Isr J Entomol 18:71–78Google Scholar
  20. Naranjo SE (2001) Conservation and evaluation of natural enemies in IPM systems for Bemisia tabaci. Crop Prot 20:835–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nordlund DA, Legaspi JC (1996) Whitefly predators and their potential for use in biological control. In: Gerling D, Mayer RT (eds) Bemisia 1995: taxonomy, biology, damage, control and management. Intercept Ltd, Andover, Hants, pp 499–513Google Scholar
  22. Norman JW, Riley DG, Sparks AN Jr, Leser JF (1993) Texas suggestions for managing sweetpotato whitefly and aphids in cotton, pp 36–37. In: Proceedings of Beltwide cotton conference. National Cotton Council of America, MemphisGoogle Scholar
  23. Ohsenorge B, Sharaf N, Allawi T (1981) Population studies on the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) during the winter season. J App Entomol 92:127–136Google Scholar
  24. Perring TM, Bellows TS (1993) ARS-112, p 17Google Scholar
  25. Perring TM, Farrar CA, Vasquez (1994) Silverleaf whitefly on crops and weeds in the Imperial Valley. ARS-125, p 24Google Scholar
  26. Pruthi HS, Samuel CK (1941) Entomological investigations of the leaf-curl disease of tobacco in Northern India. Indian J Agric Sci 7:659–670Google Scholar
  27. Pruthi HS, Samuel CK (1942) Entomological investigations of the leaf-curl disease of tobacco in Northern India.V. Biology and population of the whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) in relation to the incidence of the disease. Indian J Agric Sci 12:35–57Google Scholar
  28. Trehan KN (1944) Further notes on the bionomics of Bemisia gossypiperda M. & L., whitefly of cotton in the Punjab. Indian J Agric Sci 14:53–64Google Scholar
  29. Van Gent RV (1982) Investigations on parasites as a component of integrated pest control of whitefly in cotton in the Punjab. Indian J Agric Sci 14:53–64Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Naveed
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdus Salam
    • 2
  • Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem
    • 3
  1. 1.Central Cotton Research InstituteMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Pure and Applied BiologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  3. 3.University College of AgricultureBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan

Personalised recommendations