Advertisement

Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 79, Issue 2, pp 103–111 | Cite as

Neem oil as a potential seed dresser for managing Homopterous sucking pests of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

  • P. Indira Gandhi
  • K. Gunasekaran
  • Tongmin Sa
Original Paper

Abstract

Insecticidal seed treatment is an alternative method to spray and granular applications. It can protect the crop right from germination to reproductive stage. Recurrent use of chemical insecticides destabilizes the ecosystem and enhances the development of resistance in pest population. Use of biopesticides like neem oil (NO) is a promising one in this situation. Two field experiments were conducted to test the efficacy of NO as a seed dresser (20 ml kg−1) and the effect was compared with systemic chemical insecticides imidacloprid (7 g kg−1) and carbosulfan (7 g kg−1) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (10 g kg−1). Field studies revealed that the neem oil 60EC (C) (NO 60EC (C)) recorded minimum population of sucking pests Leafhopper—Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida and Aphids—Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Cicadellidae and Aphididae), i.e., below the ETL (2 number per leaf) up to 45 days after sowing and provided better yield compared to control. Although the systemic chemical insecticide imidacloprid performed better by recording 11,280 and 11,580 kg ha−1 of marketable fruit yield, NO 60EC (C) also recorded about twofold increase in marketable fruit yield 11,000 and 10,620 kg ha−1, respectively, in 2001 and 2002 experiments. Results of this study suggest that NO could be used as a potential seed dresser for managing sucking pests in okra.

Keywords

Biopesticides Seed treatment Systemic chemical insecticides Sucking pests Fruit yield 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We express our gratitude to Dr. M. Madhaiyan, S. Poonguzhali, R. Anandham and S. Senthil Nathan for their valuable suggestions and constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. The facilities provided to carry out this research work by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India and Financial assistance from Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry through the R&D promotion centre for Agriculture and Forestry for the first author is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Ahmed NE, Kanan HO, Inanaga S, Ma YQ, Sugimoto Y (2001) Impact of pesticide seed treatments on aphid control and yield of wheat in the sudan. Crop Prot 20:929–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdullah NMM, Singh J, Sohal BS (2005) Behavioral hormoligosis in oviposition preference of Bemisia tabaci on cotton (in press)Google Scholar
  3. Amalin DM, Pena JE, Yu SJ, Mc Sorley R (2000) Selective toxicity of some pesticides to Hibana velox (Araneae: Anyphaenidae), a predator of citrus leafminer. Flor Entomol 83:254–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baki AA, Anderson JD (1973) Vigor determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci 13:630–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basedow Th, Osziewatsch HR, Bernal Vega JA, Kollmann S, El Shafe HAF, Nicol CMY (2002) Control of aphids and whiteflies (Homoptera: Aphididae and Aleyrodidae) with different neem preparations in laboratory, greenhouse and field: effects and limitations. J Plant Dis Prot 109:612–623Google Scholar
  6. Brian AN, Taylor AG, Urwiler M, Rabaey T, Hutchison WD (2004) Neonicotinoid seed treatments for managing potato leafhopper infestations in snap bean. Crop Prot 23:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen W, Isman MB, Chiu SF (1995) Antifeedant and growth inhibitory effects of the limonoid toosendanin and Melia toosendan extracts on the variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Appl Entomol 119:367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choudhary HR, Dadheech LN (1989) Incidence of insect attacking okra and the avoidable losses caused by them. Ann Arid Zone 28:305–307Google Scholar
  9. Davies FT Jr, He C (2004) Fertility affects susceptibility of chrysanthemum to cotton aphids: influence on plant growth, photosynthesis, ethylene evolution, and herbivory abundance. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129:344–353Google Scholar
  10. Dittrich V, Ernst GH, Ruesch O, Uk S (1990) Resistance mechanisms in sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) population from Sudan, Turkey, Guatemala and Nicaragua. J Econ Entomol 83:1665–1670Google Scholar
  11. Dominick JS, Sundaram MM (1992) Effect of insecticides on the biological nature of the host plant and its relation to resurgence of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci on cotton. Pestology 16:7–10Google Scholar
  12. Drinkwater TW (2003) Comparison of imidacloprid with carbamate insecticides, and the role of planting depth in the control of false wireworm, Somaticus species, in maize. Summer grain center, Grain Crops Institute, private Bag X 1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  13. Duraimurugan P, Regupathy A (2005) Influence of Trap crops and application of neem seed kernel extract on the occurrence of natural enemies in cotton ecosystem. Resist Pest Man New (Fall) 15:7–9Google Scholar
  14. El Shafie HAF, Basedow T (2003) The efficacy of different neem preparations for the control of insects damaging potatoes and eggplants in the sudan. Crop Prot 22:1015–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ester A, Brantjes NBM (1998) Pelleting the seed of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. Capitata L.) with imidacloprid to control aphids. Med Fac Landbouww Univ Gent 63/2b:563–570Google Scholar
  16. Ester A, de Putter H, van Bilsen JGPM (2003) Film coating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. Capitatat L.) and Cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests. Crop Prot 22:761–768Google Scholar
  17. Indumathi HR, Sharma D, Awasthi MD, Siddaramappa R (2001) Uptake and dissipation of imidacloprid residues in okra. Pest Manage Hortic Ecosys 7:124–129Google Scholar
  18. Kannan K, Uthamasamy S, Mohan S (2004) Impact of insecticides on sucking pests and natural enemy complex of transgenic cotton. Curr Sci 86:726–729Google Scholar
  19. Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S (1997) Insect chitinases: molecular biology and potential use as biopesticide. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 27:887–900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kranthi KR, Jadhav D, Wanjari R, Kranthi S, Russell D (2001) Pyrethroid resistance and mechanisms of resistance in field strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Econ Entomol 94:253–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumar NKK, Moorthy PNK, Reddy SGE (2001) Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam for the control of okra leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). Pest Manage Hortic Ecosys 7:117–123Google Scholar
  22. Leszczynski B, Tjallingii WF, Matok H (2002) Probing behaviour and enzymatic defence of the grain aphid against cereal phenolics. Electron J Pol Agric Univ 5(2)Google Scholar
  23. Liang GM, Chen W, Liu TX (2003) Effects of three neem based insecticides on diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Crop Prot 22:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Long DH, Ngo N, Minton B, Smith HR (2001) Adage®: an alternative to in-furrow insecticides for early season aphid and thrips control in cotton. In: Proceedings of beltwide cotton conference, National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN, pp 789Google Scholar
  25. Lowery DT, Isman MB, Brard NL (1993) Laboratory and field evaluation of neem for the control of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Econ Entomol 86:864–870Google Scholar
  26. Macheix JJ, Fleuriet A, Billot J (1990) Changes and metabolism of phenolics compounds in fruits. In: Fruit phenolics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 149–221Google Scholar
  27. Mansour F (1987) Effect of pesticides on spiders occurring on apply and citrus in Israel. Phytoparasitica 15:43–50Google Scholar
  28. Martha M, Jack R, Mathre D, Bob J, Sue B (2003) Small grain seed treatment guide. Montana State University, Extension Service, (ed) Bob Johnston, Montguide pp 1–7Google Scholar
  29. Mohan M, Gujar GT (2003) Local variation in susceptibility of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) to insecticides and role of detoxification enzymes. Crop Prot 22:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mudathir M, Basedow Th (2004) Field experiments on the effects of neem products on pests and yields of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and onion (Allium cepa) in the Sudan. Mitt Dtsch Ges Allg Angew Entomol 14:407–410Google Scholar
  31. Nisbet AJ, Woodford JAT, Strang RHC, Connolly JD (1993) Systemic antifeedant effects of azadirachtin on the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Entomol Exp Appl 68:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Patil BC, Patil SB, Vdikeri SS, Khadi BM (2003) Effect of imidacloprid seed treatment on growth, yield, seedling vigour and biophysical parameters in cotton (Gossypium spp.) genotypes. In: Proceedings of the world cotton research conference-3, Cape Town, 9–13 March 2003Google Scholar
  33. Radja Commare R, Nandakumar R, Kandan A, Suresh S, Bharathi M, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2002) Pseudomonas fluorescens based bio-formulation for the management of sheath blight disease and leaffolder insect in rice. Crop Prot 21:671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ramputh A, Teshome A, Bergvinson DJ, Nozzolillo C, Arnason JT (1999) Soluble phenolic content as an indicator of sorghum grain resistance to Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Stored Prod Res 35:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raupach GS, Kloepper JW (1998) Mixtures of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens. Phytopathology 88:1158–1164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. SAS Institute Inc. (2001) SAS user’s guide, version 8.2. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
  37. Satpute N, Katole S, Nimbalkar S, Satpute V (2002) Attraction of seed treatment of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam to the population of Cheilomenes sexmaculatas (Febr.) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on cotton. J Biol Control 1:81–83Google Scholar
  38. Saxena RC, Justo HD Jr, Epino PB (1984) Evaluation and utilization of neem cake against the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. J Econ Entomol 77:502–507Google Scholar
  39. Schmutterer H (1995) The neem tree. source of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes. Weinheim, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmutterer H, Singh RP (2002) List of insect pests susceptible to neem products. In: Schmutterer H (ed) The neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and other meliaceous plants, 2nd edn. Mumbai (India) (Neem Foundation), pp 411–456Google Scholar
  41. Senthil Nathan S, Kalaivani K, Murugan K, Chung PG (2005a) Efficacy of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) the rice leaffolder. Crop Prot 24:760–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Senthil Nathan S, Kalaivani K, Murugan K, Chung PG (2005b) The toxicity and physiological effect of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) the rice leaffolder. Pest Bichem Physiol 81:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shafeek A, Jaya Prasanthi RP, Hariprasad Reddy G, Rajarami Reddy G (2004) Alterations in acetylcholinesterase and electrical activity in the nervous system of cockroach exposed to the neem derivative, azadirachtin. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 59:205–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Swain T, Hillis WE (1959) The phenolic constituent of Prunus domestica I. The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J Sci Food Agric 10:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tomczyk A, Nielsen DG (1999) Changes in birch leaf total phenol content and the activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase and polyphenol oxidase associated with gypsy moth feeding. In: ISHS Acta Horticulturae 381: international symposium on natural phenols in plant resistance, 4 March 1999Google Scholar
  46. Tang YQ, Weathersbee III AA, Mayer RT (2002) Effect of neem extract on the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphididae). Environ Entomol 31:172–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ulrichs CH, Mewis I, Schnitzler WH (2001) Efficacy of neem and diatomaceous earth against cowpea aphids and their deleterious effect on predating Coccinelidae. J Appl Entomol 125:571–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Urbanska A, Leszcynski B, Tjallingii WF, Matok H (2002) Probing behaviour and enzymatic defence of the grain aphid against cereal phenolics. Elec J Polish Agri Uni 5:1–13Google Scholar
  49. Zehnder G, Kloepper J, Yao C, Wei G (1997) Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Econ Entomol 90:391–396Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ChemistryChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EntomologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations