Cognitive Processing

, Volume 13, Supplement 2, pp 397–414 | Cite as

A psycho-ethological approach to social signal processing

  • Marc Mehu
  • Klaus R. Scherer


The emerging field of social signal processing can benefit from a theoretical framework to guide future research activities. The present article aims at drawing attention to two areas of research that devoted considerable efforts to the understanding of social behaviour: ethology and social psychology. With a long tradition in the study of animal signals, ethology and evolutionary biology have developed theoretical concepts to account for the functional significance of signalling. For example, the consideration of divergent selective pressures responsible for the evolution of signalling and social cognition emphasized the importance of two classes of indicators: informative cues and communicative signals. Social psychology, on the other hand, investigates emotional expression and interpersonal relationships, with a focus on the mechanisms underlying the production and interpretation of social signals and cues. Based on the theoretical considerations developed in these two fields, we propose a model that integrates the processing of perceivable individual features (social signals and cues) with contextual information, and we suggest that output of computer-based processing systems should be derived in terms of functional significance rather than in terms of absolute conceptual meaning.


Social signals Social cues Social cognition Reliability Social signal processing 



This work was funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme Theme 3, Information and Communication Technologies, European Network of Excellence Social Signal Processing Network (SSPNet), grant number 231287.


  1. Albright L, Kenny DA, Malloy TE (1988) Consensus in personality judgement at zero acquaintance. J Pers Soc Psychol 55:387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambady N, Rosenthal R (1992) Thin slices of expressive behavior as predictors of interpersonal consequences: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 111(2):256–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Argyle M, Dean J (1965) Eye-contact, distance and affiliation. Sociometry 28(3):289–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold K, Zuberbühler K (2006) Language evolution: semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature 441(7091):303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aviezer H, Hassin RR, Ryan J, Grady C, Susskind JM, Anderson AK, Moscovitch M, Bentin S (2008) Angry, disgusted, or afraid? Studies on the malleability of emotion perception. Psychol Sci 19(7):724–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ay N, Flack JC, Krakauer DC (2007) Robustness and complexity co-constructed in multimodal signalling networks. Philos Trans R Soc B 362:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachorowski J, Owren MJ (2001) Not all laughs are alike: voiced but not unvoiced laughter readily elicits positive affect. Psychol Sci 12(3):252–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banse R, Scherer KR (1996) Acoustic profiles in vocal emotion expression. J Pers Soc Psychol 70(3):614–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett L, Henzi P, Dunbar RIM (2003) Primate cognition: from ‘what now?’ to ‘what if ?’. Trends Cogn Sci 7(11):494–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartlett MS, Hager JC, Ekman P, Sejnowski TJ (1999) Measuring facial expressions by computer image analysis. Psychophysiology 36:253–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bavelas JB, Chovil N (2000) Visible acts of meaning. J Lang Soc Psychol 19(2):163–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bekoff M (1972) The development of social interaction, play, and metacommunication in mammals: an ethological perspective. Q Rev Biol 47(4):412–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben-Mokhtar S, Capra L (2009) From pervasive to social computing: algorithms and deployments. In: Proceedings of the 2009 international conference on Pervasive services, pp 169–178Google Scholar
  14. Bianchi-Berthouze N, Lisetti CL (2002) Modeling multimodal expression of user’s affective subjective experience. User Model User-adapt Interact 12:49–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boersma P (2001) Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Glot Int 5(9/10):341–345Google Scholar
  16. Boone RT, Buck R (2004) Emotional expressivity and trustworthiness: the role of nonverbal behavior in the evolution of cooperation. J Nonverbal Behav 27(3):163–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borkenau P, Mauer N, Riemann R, Spinath FM, Angleitner A (2004) Thin slices of behavior as cues of personality and intelligence. J Pers Soc Psychol 86(4):599–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown WM, Moore C (2002) Smile asymmetries and reputation as reliable indicators of likelihood to cooperate: an evolutionary analysis. In: Shohov SP (ed) Advances in psychology research. Nova Science Publishers, Huntington, pp 59–78Google Scholar
  19. Brown WM, Palameta B, Moore C (2003) Are there nonverbal cues to commitment? An exploratory study using the zero-acquaintance video presentation paradigm. Evolut Psychol 1:42–69Google Scholar
  20. Brunswik E (1956) Perception and the representative design of psychological experiments. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  21. Buck R (1994) Social and emotional functions in facial expression and communication: the readout hypothesis. Biol Psychol 38:95–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bühler K (1934) Sprachtheorie. Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  23. Burgoon JK, Poire BAL (1999) Nonverbal cues and interpersonal judgments: participant and observer perceptions of intimacy, dominance, composure, and formality. Commun Monogr 66(2):105–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Camras LA (1980) Children’s understanding of facial expressions used during conflict encounters. Child Dev 51(3):879–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cappella JN (1996) Dynamic coordination of vocal and kinesic behavior in dyadic interaction: methods, problems, and interpersonal outcomes. In: Watt JH, Lear CAV (eds) Dynamic patterns in communication processes. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 353–386Google Scholar
  26. Carrere S, Gottman JM (1999) Predicting divorce among newlyweds from the first three minutes of a marital conflict discussion. Fam Process 38(3):293–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carroll JM, Russell JA (1996) Do facial expressions signal specific emotions? Judging emotion from the face in context. J Pers Soc Psychol 70(2):205–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cashdan E (1995) Hormones, sex, and status in women. Horm Behav 29(3):354–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohn JF, Zlochower AJ, Lien J, Kanade T (1999) Automated face analysis by feature point tracking has high concurrent validity with manual FACS coding. Psychophysiology 36:35–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cupchik GC, Poulos CX (1984) Judgements of emotional intensity in self and others: the effects of stimulus context, sex, and expressivity. J Pers Soc Psychol 46(2):429–431Google Scholar
  31. Dabbs JM (1997) Testosterone, smiling, and facial appearance. J Nonverbal Behav 21(1):45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dabbs JM, Bernieri FJ, Strong RK, Campo R, Milun R (2001) Going on stage: testosterone in greetings and meetings. J Res Pers 35(1):27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davidson RJ (1992) Emotion and affective style: hemispheric substrates. Psychol Sci 3(1):39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. DePaulo BM, Ansfield ME, Kirkendol SE, Boden JM (2004) Serious lies. Basic Appl Soc Psychol 26(2/3):147–167Google Scholar
  35. Dunbar RIM (1996) Grooming, gossip, and the evolution of language. Faber & Faber, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunbar RIM (1988) Primate social systems. Chapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dunbar RIM (1998) The social brain hypothesis. Evolut Anthropol 6:178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dunbar RIM (1999) Culture, honesty and the freerider problem. In: Dunbar RIM, Knight C, Power C (eds) The evolution of culture: an interdisciplinary view. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp 194–213Google Scholar
  39. Duncan S (1972) Some signals and rules for taking speaking turns in conversations. J Pers Soc Psychol 23(2):283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Efron D (1941) Gesture and environment. King’s Crown Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Ekman P (1972) Universals and cultural differences in facial expression of emotion. In: Cole JR (ed) Nebraska symposium on motivation, vol. 19. University of Nebraska Press, Nebraska, pp 207–283Google Scholar
  42. Ekman P (1985) Telling lies: clues to deceit in the market place, marriage, and politics. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Ekman P (1992) An argument for basic emotions. Cogn Emot 6(3/4):169–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1967) Head and body cues in the judgement of emotion: a reformulation. Percept Mot Skills 24:711–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1969) The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica 1(1):49–98Google Scholar
  46. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1982) Felt, false, and miserable smiles. J Nonverbal Behav 6(4):238–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ekman P, Oster H (1979) Facial expressions of emotion. Annu Rev Psychol 30:527–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ekman P, Friesen WV, Ancoli S (1980) Facial signs of emotional experience. J Pers Soc Psychol 39(6):1125–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Erol A, Bebis G, Nicolescu M, Boyle R, Twombly X (2007) Vision-based hand pose estimation: a review. Comput Vis Image Underst 108(1–2):52–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Frank RH (1988) Passions within reason: the strategic role of the emotions. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Frijda NH (1988) The laws of emotion. Am Psychol 43(5):349–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Frijda NH, Scherer KR (2009) Emotion definitions (psychological perspectives). In: Sander D, Scherer KR (eds) The Oxford companion to emotion and affective sciences. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 142–144Google Scholar
  53. Frodi AM, Lamb ME, Leavitt LA, Donovan WL (1978) Fathers’ and mothers’ responses to infant smiles and cries. Infant Behav Dev 1:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Funder DC, Colvin CR (1988) Friends and strangers: acquaintanceship, agreement, and the accuracy of personality judgement. J Pers Soc Psychol 55(1):149–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gärdenfors P (2002) Cooperation and the evolution of symbolic communication. In: Oller K, Griebel U (eds) The evolution of communication systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 237–256Google Scholar
  56. Gardner W, Griffin WA (1989) Methods for the analysis of parallel streams of continuously recorded social behaviors. Psychol Bull 105(3):446–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ghazanfar AA, Schroeder CE (2006) Is neocortex essentially multisensory? Trends Cogn Sci 10(6):278–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gifford R (1994) A lens-mapping framework for understanding the encoding and decoding of interpersonal dispositions in nonverbal behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol 66(2):398–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gilbert M (1989) On social facts. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Grammer K, Fivola V, Fieder M (1997) The communication paradox and possible solutions: towards a radical empiricism. In: Schmitt A, Atzwanger K, Grammer K, Schäfer K (eds) New aspects of human ethology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 91–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Grice HP (1989) Studies in the way of words. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  62. Gross JJ, Levenson RW (1997) Hiding feelings: the acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. J Abnorm Psychol 106(1):95–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Guilford T, Dawkins MS (1991) Receiver psychology and the evolution of animal signals. Anim Behav 42:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Guilford T, Dawkins MS (1995) What are conventional signals? Anim Behav 49:1689–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hammond KR (1966) The psychology of Egon Brunswik. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  66. Hasson O (1994) Cheating signals. J Theor Biol 167:223–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Henricksen K, Indulska J (2006) Developing context-aware pervasive computing applications: models and approach. Pervasive Mob Comput 2(1):37–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hess U, Blairy S, Kleck RE (2000) The influence of facial emotion displays, gender, and ethnicity on judgments of dominance and affiliation. J Nonverbal Behav 24(4):265–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hinde RA (1976) Interactions, relationships and social structure. Man 11(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hinde RA (1981) Animal signals: ethological and games-theory approaches are not incompatible. Anim Behav 29:535–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Humphrey NK (1976) The social function of intellect. In: Bateson PPG, Hinde RA (eds) Growing points in ethology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 303–318Google Scholar
  72. Huxley J (1966) A discussion on ritualization of behaviour in animals and man. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 251(772):249–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Izard CE (1971) The face of emotion. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Jaimes A, Sebe N (2007) Multimodal human–computer interaction: a survey. Comput Vis Image Underst 108(1–2):116–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Janson CH (2000) Primate socio-ecology: the end of a golden age. Evol Anthropol 9(2):73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Johnstone RA (1997) The evolution of animal signals. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural ecology. Oxford University Press, pp 155–178Google Scholar
  77. Juslin PN, Laukka P (2003) Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: different channels, same code? Psychol Bull 129(5):770–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kapoor A, Picard R (2001) A real-time head nod and shake detector. In: Proceedings of the 2001 workshop on Perceptive user interfaces 15:1–5Google Scholar
  79. Kappas A (1997) The fascination with faces: are they windows to our soul? J Nonverbal Behav 21(3):157–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kawato S, Ohya J (2000) Real-time detection of nodding and head-shaking by directly detecting and tracking the “between-eyes”. In: Proceedings of the fourth IEEE international conference on automatic face and gesture recognition, pp 40–45Google Scholar
  81. Keltner D, Bonanno GA (1997) A study of laughter and dissociation: distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement. J Pers Soc Psychol 73(4):687–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Keltner D, Kring AM (1998) Emotion, social function, and psychopathology. Rev Gen Psychol 2(3):320–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kendon A (1988) How gestures can become like words. In: Poyatos F (ed) Cross-cultural perspectives in nonverbal communication. Hogrefe, New York, pp 131–141Google Scholar
  84. Kiesler DJ (1983) The 1982 interpersonal circle: a taxonomy for complementarity in human transactions. Psychol Rev 90(3):185–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Knutson B (1996) Facial expressions of emotion influence interpersonal trait inferences. J Nonverbal Behav 20(3):165–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kraut R, Johnston R (1979) Social and emotional messages of smiling: an ethological approach. J Pers Soc Psychol 57:431–475Google Scholar
  87. Krebs JR, Dawkins R (1984) Animal signals: mind-reading and manipulation. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary approach, vol 2. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 380–402Google Scholar
  88. Kring AM, Smith DA, Neale JM (1994) Individual differences in dispositional expressiveness: development and validation of the emotional expressivity scale. J Pers Soc Psychol 66(5):934–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lipps, T. (1907). Psychologische Untersuchungen. EngelmannGoogle Scholar
  90. Lorenz K (1939) Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung. Zoologischer Anzeiger, supplement (12):69–102Google Scholar
  91. Beadle H, Maguire Jr, G, Smith M (1997) Using location and environment awareness in mobile communications. In: ICICS Proceedings of the international conference on information, communications and signal processing 3:1781–1785Google Scholar
  92. Manstead ASR, Fisher AH (2001) Social appraisal: the social world as object of and influence on appraisal processes. In: Scherer KR, Schorr A, Johnstone T (eds) Appraisal process in emotion: theory, method, research. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  93. Massaro DW, Egan PB (1996) Perceiving affect from the voice and the face. Psychon Bull Rev 3(2):215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Maynard-Smith J, Harper DG (1995) Animal signals: models and terminology. J Theor Biol 177:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Maynard-Smith J, Harper DG (2003) Animal signals. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  96. McNeill D (2005) Gesture and thought. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  97. Mehrabian A, Ksionzky S (1972) Some determiners of social inter-action. Sociometry 35(4):588–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mehu M, Grammer K, Dunbar RIM (2007a) Smiles when sharing. Evol Hum Behav 28(6):415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mehu M, Little AC, Dunbar RIM (2007b) Duchenne smiles and the perception of generosity and sociability in faces. J Evolut Psychol 5(1–4):133–146Google Scholar
  100. Mehu M, Mortillaro M, Bänziger T, Scherer KR (2012) Reliable facial muscles activation enhances recognisability and credibility of emotional expression. Emotion (in press)Google Scholar
  101. Miller SL, Maner JK (2010) Scent of a woman. Psychol Sci 21(2):276–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Morency L-P, Sidner C, Lee C, Darrell T (2005) Contextual recognition of head gestures. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Multimodal interfaces, pp 18–24Google Scholar
  103. Morris D (1956) The feather postures of birds and the problem of the origin of social signals. Behaviour 9:6–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mortillaro M, Mehu M, Scherer KR (2011) Subtly different positive emotions can be distinguished by their facial expressions. Soc Psychol Personal Sci 2(3):262–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Niedenthal PM (2007) Embodying emotion. Science 316(5827):1002–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Oikonomopoulos A, Pantic M, Patras I (2009) Sparse b-spline polynomial descriptors for human activity recognition. Image Vis Comput 27(12):1814–1825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Olguín Olguín D, Waber BN, Kim T, Mohan A, Ara K, Pentland A (2009) Sensible organizations: technology and methodology for automatically measuring organizational behavior. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part B 39(1):43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Oosterhof NN, Todorov A (2008) The functional basis of face evaluation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(32):11087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Owings DH, Morton ES (1997) The role of information in communication: an assessment/management approach. In: Owings DH, Beecher MD, Thompson NS (eds) Perspectives in ethology: communication, vol 12. Plenum Press, New York, pp 359–390Google Scholar
  110. Owren MJ, Bachorowski J-A (2003) Reconsidering the evolution of nonlinguistic communication: the case of laughter. J Nonverbal Behav 27(3):183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Owren MJ, Rendall D, Ryan MJ (2010) Redefining animal signaling: influence versus information in communication. Biol Philos 25(5):755–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pantic M, Rothkrantz LJ (2000) Automatic analysis of facial expressions: the state of the art. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 22(12):1424–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Papa A, Bonanno GA (2008) Smiling in the face of adversity: the interpersonal and intrapersonal functions of smiling. Emotion 8(1):1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Parkinson B (1996) Emotions are social. Br J Psychol 87(4):663–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Parkinson B (2005) Do facial movements express emotions or communicate motives? Pers Soc Psychol Rev 9(4):278–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Partan SR, Marler P (2005) Issues in the classification of multimodal communication signals. Am Nat 166(2):231–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Patterson ML (1982) A sequential functional model of nonverbal exchange. Psychol Rev 89(3):231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pentland A (2007) Social signal processing. Signal Process Mag IEEE 24(4):108–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Picard RW (1997) Affective computing. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  120. Pourtois G, Gelder B, Bol A, Crommelinck M (2005) Perception of facial expressions and voices and of their combination in the human brain. Cortex 41(1):49–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rendall D, Owren MJ, Ryan MJ (2009) What do animal signals mean? Anim Behav 78(2):233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Righart R, Gelder BD (2008) Recognition of facial expressions is influenced by emotional scene gist. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 8(3):264–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rosenzweig MR, Breedlove SM, Leiman AL (2002) Biological psychology: An introduction to behavioral, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience, 3rd edn. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  124. Rowe C (1999) Receiver psychology and the evolution of multicomponent signals. Anim Behav 58:921–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sadler P, Ethier N, Gunn GR, Duong D, Woody E (2009) Are we on the same wavelength? Interpersonal complementarity as shared cyclical patterns during interactions. J Pers Soc Psychol 97(6):1005–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Scherer KR (1978) Personality inference from voice quality: the loud voice of extroversion. Eur J Soc Psychol 8(4):467–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Scherer KR (1986) Vocal affect expression: a review and a model for future research. Psychol Bull 99(2):143–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Scherer KR (1992) Vocal affect expression as symptom, symbol, and appeal. In: Papousek H, Jürgens U (eds) Nonverbal vocal communication: comparative and developmental approaches. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 43–62Google Scholar
  129. Scherer KR (2001) Appraisal considered as a process of multilevel sequential checking. In: Scherer KR, Schorr A, Johnstone T (eds) Appraisal process in emotion: theory, method, research. Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, pp 92–120Google Scholar
  130. Scherer KR (2009) The dynamic architecture of emotion: evidence for the component process model. Cogn Emot 23(7):1307–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Scherer KR (2011) Vocal markers of emotion: comparing induction and acting elicitation. Comput Speech Lang. doi: 10.1016/j.csl.2011.11.003 Google Scholar
  132. Scherer KR, Ellgring H (2007a) Are facial expressions of emotion produced by categorical affect programs or dynamically driven by appraisal? Emotion 7(1):113–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Scherer KR, Ellgring H (2007b) Multimodal expression of emotion: affect programs or componential appraisal patterns? Emotion 7(1):158–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Scherer KR, Grandjean D (2008) Facial expressions allow inference of both emotions and their components. Cogn Emot 22(5):789–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Searcy WA (1992) Song repertoire and mate choice in bird. Am Zool 32(1):71Google Scholar
  136. Sell A, Bryant GA, Cosmides L, Tooby J, Sznycer D, von Rueden C, Krauss A, Gurven M (2010) Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice. Proc R Soc Lond Series B 277:3509–3518Google Scholar
  137. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (2003) Signalers and receivers in animal communication. Annu Rev Psychol 54:145–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL, Marler P (1980) Vervet monkey alarm calls: semantic communication in a free-ranging primate. Anim Behav 28(4):1070–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Smith CA (1989) Dimensions of appraisal and physiological response in emotion. J Pers Soc Psychol 56(3):339–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Smith EA (2010) Communication and collective action: language and the evolution of human cooperation. Evol Hum Behav 31(4):231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sperber D, Wilson D (1995) Relevance: communication and cognition, 2nd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  142. Susskind JM, Lee DH, Cusi A, Feiman R, Grabski W, Anderson AK (2008) Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition. Nat Neurosci 11:843–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tan W, Rong G (2003) A real-time head nod and shake detector using HMMs. Expert Syst Appl 25(3):461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Thibault P, Gosselin P, Brunel M-L, Hess U (2009) Children’s and adolescent’s perception of the authenticity of smiles. J Exp Child Psychol 102:360–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tomasello M (2008) The origins of human communication. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  146. Tomasello M, Carpenter M (2007) Shared intentionality. Dev Sci 10(1):121–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tomkins SS, Carter RM (1964) What and where are the primary affects? Some evidence for a theory. Percept Mot Skills 18:119–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tracy JL, Robins RW (2004) Show your pride: evidence for discrete emotion expression. Psychol Sci 15(3):194–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Trope Y (1986) Identification and inferential processes in dispositional attribution. Psychol Rev 93(3):239–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tusing KJ, Dillard JP (2000) The sounds of dominance. Hum Commun Res 26(1):148–171Google Scholar
  151. van Schaik CP (1983) Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour 87:120–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Vehrencamp SL (2000) Handicap, index, and conventional signal elements of bird song. In: Edpmark Y, Amundsen T, Rosenqvist G (eds) Animal signals: signalling and signal design in animal communication. Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim, pp 277–300Google Scholar
  153. Vinciarelli A, Pantic M, Bourlard H (2009) Social signal processing: survey of an emerging domain. Image Vis Comput J 27(12):1743–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wallbott HG (1998) Bodily expression of emotion. Eur J Soc Psychol 28(6):879–896Google Scholar
  155. Wallbott HG, Scherer KR (1986) Cues and channels in emotion recognition. J Pers Soc Psychol 51(4):690–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Whiten A, Byrne RW (1988) The Machiavellian intelligence hypotheses: editorial. In: Byrne RW, Whiten A (eds) Machiavellian intelligence: social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes, and humans. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  157. Wiggins JS, Trapnell P, Phillips N (1988) Psychometric and geometric characteristics of the revised interpersonal adjective scales (IAS-R). Multivar Behav Res 23(4):517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wiley RH (1983) The evolution of communication: information and manipulation. Anim Behav 2:156–189Google Scholar
  159. Wilson D, Sperber D (2006) Relevance theory. In: Horn LR, Ward G (eds) Handbook of pragmatics. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 607–632Google Scholar
  160. Vrij A (2008) Detecting lies and deceit. Pifalls and opportunities, 2nd edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  161. Young AW, Rowland D, Calder AJ, Etcoff NL, Seth A, Perrett DI (1997) Facial expression megamix: tests of dimensional and category accounts of emotion recognition. Cognition 63(3):271–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zahavi A (1975) Mate selection: selection for a handicap. J Theor Biol 53:205–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zahavi A, Zahavi A (1997) The handicap principle: a missing part of Darwin’s puzzle. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  164. Zhou J, Sun J, Athukorala K, Wijekoon D (2010) Pervasive social computing: augmenting five facets of human intelligence. In: ubiquitous intelligence and computing and 7th international conference on autonomic and trusted computing (UIC/ATC), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  165. Zuckerman M, DePaulo BM, Rosenthal R (1981a) Verbal and nonverbal communication of deception. In: Berkowitz L (ed) Advances in experimental social psychology, vol 14. Academic Press, New York, pp 2–60Google Scholar
  166. Zuckerman M, Koestner R, Driver R (1981b) Beliefs about cues associated with deception. J Nonverbal Behav 6:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swiss Centre for Affective SciencesUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations