Advertisement

Cognitive Processing

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 135–162 | Cite as

Timing in cognition and EEG brain dynamics: discreteness versus continuity

  • Andrew A. FingelkurtsEmail author
  • Alexander A. Fingelkurts
Review

Abstract

This article provides an overview of recent developments in solving the timing problem (discreteness vs. continuity) in cognitive neuroscience. Both theoretical and empirical studies have been considered, with an emphasis on the framework of operational architectonics (OA) of brain functioning (Fingelkurts and Fingelkurts in Brain Mind 2:291–29, 2001; Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:827–836, 2005). This framework explores the temporal structure of information flow and interarea interactions within the network of functional neuronal populations by examining topographic sharp transition processes in the scalp EEG, on the millisecond scale. We conclude, based on the OA framework, that brain functioning is best conceptualized in terms of continuity–discreteness unity which is also the characteristic property of cognition. At the end we emphasize where one might productively proceed for the future research.

Keywords

Temporal structure Consciousness Cognition Perception EEG Discreteness Continuity Operational architectonics Brain operations Large-scale networks Metastability Synchronization Binding problem Brain and mind 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for stimulating discussions on related questions to Prof. Alexander Kaplan, Prof. Walter Freeman, Prof. Erol Basar, Prof. Hermann Haken, Prof. Steve Bressler, and Mr. Carlos Neves (Computer Science specialist). Conversations with Prof. Antti Revonsuo about neurophysiology of consciousness have had a significant influence on the ideas in this paper. We wish also to thank Prof. William Banks and Prof. Max Velmans for their very useful comments on the earlier version of this paper. The writing of this paper has been supported by the BM-SCIENCE. Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lippa for skilful text editing.

References

  1. Albertazzi L (1998) Perceptual saliences and nuclei of meaning. In: Poli R (ed) The Brentano puzzle. Aldershot, Ashgate, pp 113–138Google Scholar
  2. Alexandrov YuI (1999) Psychophysiological regularities of the dynamics of individual experience and the “stream of consciousness.” In: Taddei-Feretti C, Musio C (eds) Series on biophysics and biocybernetics. Neural basis and psychological aspects of consciousness, Vol. 8—Biocybernetic. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 201–219Google Scholar
  3. Allport DA (1968) Phenomenal simultaneity and perceptual moment hypothesis. Br J Psychol 59:395–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alpern M (1952) Metacontrast. Am J Optomol 29:631–646Google Scholar
  5. Andrews TJ, White LE, Binder D, Purves D (1996) Temporal events in cyclopean vision. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:3689–3692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arbib MA (2001) Co-evolution of human consciousness and language. In: Marijuan EP (ed) Cajal and consciousness: scientific approaches to consciousness on the Centential of Ramon y Cajal’s Textura. Vol. 929. Annals of the NYAS, New York, pp 195–220Google Scholar
  7. Averbeck BB, Lee D (2004) Coding and transmission of information by neural ensembles. Trends Neurosci 27:225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baars BJ (1988) A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Baars BJ (1997) In the theatre of consciousness: global workspace theory, a rigorous scientific theory of consciousness. J Conscious Stud 4:292–309Google Scholar
  10. Bachmann T (1984) The process of perceptual retouch: nonspecific afferent activation dynamics in explaining visual masking. Percept Psychophys 35:69–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bachmann T (1994) Psychophysiology of visual masking. Nova Science, Commack, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Bachmann T (1999) Twelve spatiotemporal phenomena, and one explanation. In: Aschersleben G, Bachmann T, Musseler J (eds) Cognitive contributions to the perception of spatial and temporal events. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 173–206Google Scholar
  13. Bachmann T, Luiga I, Poder E, Kalev K (2003) Perceptual acceleration of objects in stream: evidence from ?ash-lag displays. Conscious Cogn 12:279–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bair W (1999) Spike timing in the mammalian visual system. Curr Opin Neurobiol 9:447–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bak P, Tang C, Wiesenfeld K (1987) Self-organized criticality: an explanation of 1/f noise. Phys Rev Lett 59:364–374Google Scholar
  16. Baker SN, Spinks R, Jackson A, Lemon RN (2001) Synchronization in monkey motor cortex during a precision grip task. I. Task-dependent modulation in single-unit synchrony. J Neurophysiol 85:869–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Barrie JM, Freeman WJ, Lenhart MD (1996) Spatiotemporal analysis of prepyriform, visual, auditory, and somesthetic surface EEGs in trained rabbits. J Neurophysiol 76:520–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barsalou LW (1999) Perceptual symbol systems. Behav Brain Sci 22:577–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Basar E (2004) Macrodynamics of electrical activity in the whole brain. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 14:363–381Google Scholar
  20. Basar E (2005) Memory as the “whole brain work.” A large-scale model based on “oscillations in super-synergy.” Int J Psychophysiol 58:199–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Basar E, Basar-Eroglu C, Karakas S, Schurmann M (2001) Gamma, alpha, delta, and theta oscillations govern cognitive processes. Int J Psychophysiol 39:241–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bayne T, Chalmers DJ (2002) What is the unity of consciousness? In: Cleeremans A (ed) The unity of consciousness: binding, integration, dissociation. Oxford University Press, Oxford URL = http://www.u.arizona.edu/∼chalmers/papers/unity.html
  23. Bennett NVL, Zukin RS (2004) Electrical coupling and neuronal synchronization in the mammalian brain. Neuron 41:495–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bickle J, Worley C, Bernstein M (2000) Vector subtraction implemented neurally: a neurocomputational model of some sequential cognitive and conscious processes. Conscious Cogn 9:117–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Birch T (2002) Introduction to mental images. Homepage, URL = http://www.gis.net/∼tbirch/hp5.html
  26. Blachowicz J (1997) Analog representation beyond mental imagery. J Philos 94:55–84Google Scholar
  27. Block RA (1990) Models of psychological time. In: Block RA (ed) Cognitive models of psychological time. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  28. Block N (1995) On a confusion about a function of consciousness. Behav Brain Sci 18:227–287Google Scholar
  29. Bolton TL (1894) Rhythm. Am J Psychol 6:145–238Google Scholar
  30. Borisov SV (2002) Studying of a phasic structure of the alpha activity of human EEG. PhD dissertation, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation, 213 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. Braitenberg V (1980) Alcune considerazione sui meccanismi cerebrali del linguaggio. In: Braga G, Braitenberg V, Cipolli C, Coseriu E, Crespi-Reghizzi S, Mehler J, Titone R (eds) L’accostamento interdisciplinare allo studio del linguaggio. Franco Angeli Editore, BraitenbergGoogle Scholar
  32. Braitenberg V, Pulvermüller F (1992) Entwurf einer neurologischen Theorie der Sprache. Naturwissenschaften 79:103–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bressler SL (1995) Large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 20:288–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bressler SL (2003) Cortical coordination dynamics and the disorganization syndrome in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:S35–S39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bressler SL, Kelso JAS (2001) Cortical coordination dynamics and cognition. Trends Cogn Sci 5:26–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brodsky BE, Darkhovsky BS (1993) Nonparametric methods in change-point problems. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  37. Brodsky BE, Darkhovsky BS, Kaplan AYA, Shishkin SL (1999) A nonparametric method for the segmentation of the EEG. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 60:93–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Brown JW (1998) Fundamentals of process neuropsychology. Brain Cogn 38:234–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bullock TH (1997) Signals and signs in the nervous system: The dynamic anatomy of electrical activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Buzsáki G (2004) Large-scale recording of neuronal ensembles. Nat Neurosci 7:446–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Buzsáki G, Draguhn A (2004) Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks. Science 304:1926–1929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Callaway E, Layne RS (1964) Interaction between the visual evoked response and two spontaneous biological rhythms: the EEG alpha cycle and the cardiac arousal cycle. Ann NY Acad Sci 112:421–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cariani P (1997) Emergence of new signal-primitives in neural systems. Intellectica 2:95–143Google Scholar
  44. Chafe WL (1994) Discourse, consciousness, and time: the flow and displacement of conscious experience in speaking and writing. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  45. Chalmers DJ (1995) Facing up to the problems of consciousness. J Conscious Stud 2:200–219Google Scholar
  46. Chalmers DJ (2002) Consciousness and its place in nature. In: Chalmers D (ed) Philosophy of mind: classical and contemporary readings. Oxford, URL = http://www.jamaica.u.arizona.edu/∼chalmers/papers/nature.html
  47. Chomsky N (1957) Syntactic structures. The Hague, MoutonGoogle Scholar
  48. Churchland PS, Sejnowski T (1992) The computational brain. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. Cooper LA (1975) Mental transformation of random two-dimensional shapes. Cognit Psychol 7:20–43Google Scholar
  50. Crick F, Koch C (2003) A framework for consciousness. Nat Neurosci 6:119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Crone NE, Miglioretti DL, Gordon B, Lesser RP (1998) Functional mapping of human sensorimotor cortex with electrocorticographic spectral analysis. II. Event-related synchronization in the gamma band. Brain 121:2301–2315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cuesta MJ, Peralta V (2001) Integrating psychopathological dimensions in functional psychoses: a hierarchical approach. Schizophr Res 52:215–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Damasio AR (1994) Descartes’ error; emotion, reason and the human brain. Picador, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Damasio AR (2000) The feeling of what happens. Body, emotion and the making of consciousness. Vintage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Dennett DC (1991) Consciousness explained. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  56. Dennett DC, Kinsbourne M (1995) Time and the observer: The where and when of consciousness in the brain. Behav Brain Sci 15:183–247Google Scholar
  57. Dietze G (1885) Untersuchungen über den Umfang des Bewusstseins bei regelmässig auf einander folgenden Schalleindrücken. Philos Stud 2:362–393Google Scholar
  58. DiLollo V, Enns JT, Rensink RA (2000) Competition for consciousness among visual events: the psychophysics of reentrant visual processes. J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481–507Google Scholar
  59. Dinse H (1990) A temporal structure of cortical information processing. Concepts Neurosci 1:199–238Google Scholar
  60. Dinse H (1994) A time-based approach towards cortical functions: neural mechanisms underlying dynamic aspects of information processing before and after postontogenetic plastic processes. Physica D 75:129–150Google Scholar
  61. Donald M (1993) Precis of origins of the modern mind: three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Behav Brain Sci 16:737–791Google Scholar
  62. Eagleman DM (2001) Visual illusions and neurobiology. Nat Rev Neurosci 2:920–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Edelman GM, Tononi G (2000) A Universe of consciousness: how matter becomes imagination. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Effern A, Lehnertz K, Fernandez G, Grunwald T, David P, Elger CE (2000) Single trial analysis of event related potentials: non-linear de-noising with wavelets. Clin Neurophysiol 111:2255–2263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Efron E (1970) The minimum duration of a perception. Neuropsychologia 8:57–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Eliasmith C (2000) Is the brain analog or digital? The solution and its consequences for cognitive science. Cogn Sci Q 1:147–170Google Scholar
  67. Eliasmith C (2001) Attractive and in-discrete: a critique of two putative virtues of the dynamicist theory of mind. Minds Mach 11:417–426Google Scholar
  68. Eliasmith C (2002) Discreteness and relevance: a reply to Roman Poznanski. Minds Mach 12: 437–438Google Scholar
  69. Elul R (1972a) The genesis of the EEG. In: Pfeiffer CC, Smythes JR (eds) International review of neurobiology, Vol. 15. Academic, New York, pp 227–272Google Scholar
  70. Elul R (1972b) Randomness and synchrony in the generation of electroencephalogram. In: Petsche H, Brazier MAB (eds) Synchronization of EEG activity in epilepsies. Springer, Vienna, pp 59–77Google Scholar
  71. Fell J, Kaplan A, Darkhovsky B, Röschke J (2000) EEG analysis with nonlinear deterministic and stochastic methods: a combined strategy. Acta Neurobiol Exp 60:87–108Google Scholar
  72. Fingelkurts AnA (1998) Time-spatial organization of human EEG segment’s structure. PhD Dissertation, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation 415 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  73. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA (2001) Operational architectonics of the human brain biopotential field: towards solving the mind-brain problem. Brain Mind 2:261–296, URL = http://www.bm-science.com/team/art18.pdf
  74. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA (2003) Operational architectonics of perception and cognition: a principle of self-organized metastable brain states. In: VI Parmenides workshop—Perception and thinking, Institute of Medical Psychology. April 5–10, Elba/Italy (invited full-text contribution) URL = http://www.bm-science.com/team/art24.pdf
  75. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA (2004) Making complexity simpler: multivariability and metastability in the Brain. Int J Neurosci 114:843–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA (2005) Mapping of the brain operational architectonics. Chapter 2. In: Chen FJ (ed) Focus on brain mapping research. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp 59–98. URL = http://www.bm-science.com/team/chapt3.pdf
  77. Fingelkurts AlA, Fingelkurts AnA, Kaplan AYa (2003) The regularities of the discrete nature of multi-variability of EEG spectral patterns. Int J Psychophysiol 47:23–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AnA, Kähkönen SA (2005) Functional connectivity in the brain—is it an elusive concept? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:827–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Fingelkurts AlA, Fingelkurts AnA, Krause CM, Sams M (2002) Probability interrelations between pre-/post-stimulus intervals and ERD/ERS during a memory task. Clin Neurophysiol 113:826–843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA, Krause CM, Möttönen R, Sams M (2003a) Cortical operational synchrony during audio-visual speech integration. Brain Lang 85:297–312Google Scholar
  81. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA, Krause CM, Kaplan AYa, Borisov SV, Sams M (2003b) Structural (operational) synchrony of EEG alpha activity during an auditory memory task. NeuroImage 20:529–542Google Scholar
  82. Fingelkurts AlA, Fingelkurts AnA, Krause CM, Kaplan AYa (2003c) Systematic rules underlying spectral pattern variability: Experimental results and a review of the evidence. Int J Neurosci 113:1447–1473Google Scholar
  83. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA, Fingelkurts AnA, Kivisaari R, Pekkonen E, Ilmoniemi RJ, Kähkönen SA (2004a) Enhancement of GABA-related signalling is associated with increase of functional connectivity in human cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 22:27–39Google Scholar
  84. Fingelkurts AnA, Fingelkurts AlA, Fingelkurts AnA, Kivisaari R, Pekkonen E, Ilmoniemi RJ, Kähkönen SA (2004b) Local and remote functional connectivity of neocortex under the inhibition influence. Neuroimage 22:1390–1406Google Scholar
  85. Finke RA, Kurtzman HS (1981) Mapping the visual field in mental imagery. J Exp Psychol Gen 110:501–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Flohr H (1995) Sensations and brain processes. Behav Brain Res 71:157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Fodor J, Pylyshyn Z (1988) Connectionism and cognitive architecture: a critical analysis. Cognition 28:3–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Fraisse P (1978) Time and rhythm perception. In: Carterette EC, Friedman MP (eds) Handbook of perception, Vol. 8. Academic, New York, pp 203–254Google Scholar
  89. Fraisse P (1984) Perception and estimation of time. Annu Rev Psychol 35:1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Freeman WJ (1972) Waves, pulses and the theory of neural masses. Prog Theor Biol 2:87–165Google Scholar
  91. Freeman WJ (1974) A model for mutual excitation in a neuron population in olfactory bulb. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 21:350–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Freeman WJ (2003) Evidence from human scalp electroencephalograms of global chaotic itinerancy. Chaos 13:1067–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Freeman WJ, Barrie JM (1993) Chaotic oscillations and the genesis of meaning in cerebral cortex. In: The IPSEN foundation symposium on temporal coding in the brain, Paris, 11 October 1993Google Scholar
  94. Freeman WJ, Vitiello G (2005) Nonlinear brain dynamics and many-body field dynamics. Electromagn Biol Med 24:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Freeman WJ, Rogers LJ, Holmes MD, Silbergeld DL (2000) Spatial spectral analysis of human electrocorticograms including the alpha and gamma bands. J Neurosci Methods 95:111–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Friston KJ (1997) Transients, metastability and neural dynamics. NeuroImage 5:164–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Friston K (2000) The labile brain. I. Neuronal transients and nonlinear coupling. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:215–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Galambos R, Makeig S, Talmachoff PJ (1981) A 40-Hz auditory potential recorded from the human scalp. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:2643–2647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Galin D (1994) The structure of awareness: contemporary applications of William James’ forgotten concept of “the fringe.” J Mind Behav 15:375–402Google Scholar
  100. Galin D (2000) Comments on Epstein’s neurocognitive interpretation of William James’s model of consciousness. Conscious Cogn 9: 576–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Geissler H-G (1987) The temporal architecture of central information processing: evidence for a tentative time-quantum model. Psychol Res 49:99–106Google Scholar
  102. Geissler H-G (1997) Is there a way from behavior to non-linear brain dynamics? On quantal periods in cognition and the place of alpha in brain resonances. Int J Psychophysiol 26:381–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Geissler H-G, Schebera F-U, Kompass R (1999) Ultra-precise quantal timing: evidence from simultaneity thresholds in long-range apparent movement. Percept Psychophys 61:707–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Gho M, Varela FJ (1988) A quantitative assessment of the dependency of the visual temporal frame upon the cortical rhythm. Am J Physiol 83:95–101Google Scholar
  105. Giaquinta A, Argentina M, Velarde MG (2000) A simple generalized excitability model mimicking salient features of neuron dynamics. J Stat Phys 101:665–678Google Scholar
  106. Glicksohn J (2001) Temporal cognition and the phenomenology of time: a multiplicative function for apparent duration. Conscious Cogn 10:1–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Gobet F, Lane PCR, Croker S, Cheng PC-H, Oliver I, Pine JM (2001) Chanking mechanisms in human learning. Trends Cogn Sci 5:236–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Gomes G (2002) Problems in the timing of conscious experience. Conscious Cogn 11:191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Gray CM, Singer W (1989) Stimulus-specific neuronal oscillations in orientation columns of cat visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:1698–1702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Gray CM, Maldonado PE, Wilson M, McNaughton B (1995) Tetrodes markedly improve the reliability and yield of multiple single-unit isolation from multi-unit recordings in cat striate cortex. J Neurosci Methods 63:43–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Grinvald A, Arieli A, Tsodyks M, Kenet T (2003) Neuronal assemblies: single cortical neurons are obedient members of a huge orchestra. Biopolymers 68:422–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Habel Ch (1994) Discreteness, finiteness, and the structure of topological spaces. In: Eschenbach C, Habel Ch, Smith B (eds) Topological foundations of cognitive science. Report 37. Graduiertenkolleg Kognitionswissenschaft Hamburg, Hamburg, pp 81–90Google Scholar
  113. Haig AR, Gordon E, De Pascalis V, Meares RA, Bahramali H, Harris A (2000) Gamma activity in schizophrenia: evidence of impaired network binding? Clin Neurophysiol 111:1461–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Haken H (1996) Principles of brain functioning: a synergetic approach to brain activity, behavior and cognition. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Harter MR (1967) Excitability cycles and cortical scanning: a review of two hypothesis of cortical intermittency in perception. Psychol Bull 68:47–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hasty J, Collins JJ, Wiesenfeld K, Grigg P (2001) Wavelets of excitability in sensory neurons. J Neurophysiol 86:2097–2101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hebb DO (1949) The organization of behavior. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Hill C (1991) Sensations: a defense of type materialism. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  119. Hirsh IJ, Sherrick CEJ (1961) Perceived order in different sense modalities. J Exp Psychol 62:423–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hobson JA (1992) A new model of brain-mind state: activation level, input source, and mode of processing (AIM). In: Antrobus J, Bertini M (eds) The neuropsychology of dreaming sleep. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  121. Hobson JA, Pace-Schott EF, Stickgold R (2000) Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Behav Brain Sci 23:793–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Hwa RC, Ferree T (2002) Scaling properties of fluctuations in the human electroencephalogram. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 66:021901Google Scholar
  123. Ivancich JE, Huyck CR, Kaplana S (1999) Cell assemblies as building blocks of larger cognitive structures. Behav Brain Sci 22:292–293Google Scholar
  124. Izhikevich EM (1999) Class 1 neural excitability, conventional synapses, weakly connected networks, and mathematical foundations of pulse-coupled models. IEEE Trans Neural Netw 10:499–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. James W (1890) The principles of psychology. Vol. I. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  126. Jansen BH, Cheng WK (1988) Structural EEG analysis: an explorative study. Int J Biomed Comput 23:221–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Jeannerod M (1994) The representing brain: neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behav Brain Sci 17:187–245Google Scholar
  128. John ER (1990) Machinery of the mind. Birkhauser, BostonGoogle Scholar
  129. John ER (2001) A field theory of consciousness. Conscious Cogn 9–10:184–213Google Scholar
  130. John ER (2002) The neurophysics of consciousness. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 39:1–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kahneman D (1978) Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  132. Kaplan AYa (1995) On the frame architecture of central information processing: EEG analysis. In: The fourth IBRO World congress of neuroscience, p 438Google Scholar
  133. Kaplan AYa (1998) Nonstationary EEG: methodological and experimental analysis. Usp Fiziol Nauk (Success in Physiological Sciences) 29:35–55 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  134. Kaplan AYa (1999) The problem of segmental description of human electroencephalogram (translated from Physiol Cheloveka). Human Physiol 25:107–114Google Scholar
  135. Kaplan AYa, Shishkin SL (2000) Application of the change-point analysis to the investigation of the brain’s electrical activity. Chapter 7. In: Brodsky BE, Darkhovsky BS (eds) Nonparametric statistical diagnosis: problems and methods. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 333–388Google Scholar
  136. Kaplan AYa, Borisov SV (2002) The differences in structural synchrony of the brain electrical field in alpha range between normal control and schizophrenic adolescents. Human Brain Mapping Meeting (Sendai, Japan, 2002). Poster No.: 10472. NeuroImage No 329Google Scholar
  137. Kaplan AYa, Borisov SV (2003) Dynamic properties of segmental characteristics of EEG alpha activity in rest conditions and during cognitive load (in Russian). Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im IP Pavlova (IP Pavlov J High Nerv Act) 53:22–32Google Scholar
  138. Kaplan AYA, Fingelkurts ALA, Fingelkurts ANA, Darkhovsky BS (1997) Topological mapping of sharp reorganization synchrony in multichannel EEG. Am J Electroneurodiagnostic Technol 37:265–275Google Scholar
  139. Kaplan AYA, Fingelkurts ANA, Fingelkurts ALA, Borisov SV, Darkhovsky BS (2005) Nonstationary nature of the brain activity as revealed by EEG/MEG: methodological, practical and conceptual challenges. Signal Process 85:2190–2212Google Scholar
  140. Kallio S, Revonsuo A (2003) Hypnotic phenomena and altered states of consciousness: a multilevel framework of description and explanation. Contemp Hypn 20:111–164Google Scholar
  141. Kelso JAS (1991) Behavioral and neural pattern generation: the concept of neurobehavioral dynamical system (NBDS). In: Koepchen HP (ed) Cardiorespiratory and motor coordination. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  142. Kelso JAS (1995) Review of dynamic patterns: the self-organization of brain and behavior. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  143. Kinoshita T, Strik WK, Michel CM, Yagyu T, Saito M, Lehmann D (1995) Microstate segmentation of spontaneous multichannel EEG map series under diazepam and sulpiride. Pharmacopsychiatry 28:51–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kirillov AB, Makarenko VI (1991) Metastability and phase transition in neural networks: statistical approach. In: Holden AV, Kryukov VI (eds). Neurocomputers and attention, Vol. 2. Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp 825–922Google Scholar
  145. Koenig T, Lehmann D (1996) Microstates in language-related brain potentials show noun-verb differences. Brain Lang 53:169–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Koenig T, Prichep L, Lehmann D, Sosa PV, Braeker E, Kleinlogel H, Isenhart R, John ER (2002) Millisecond by millisecond, year by year: normative EEG microstates and developmental stages. NeuroImage 16:41–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Köhler W (1940) Dynamics in psychology. Grove Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  148. Korb KB (1993) Stage effects in the Cartesian theater: a review of Daniel Dennett’s consciousness explained. PSYCHE 1(4), December 1993, URL = http://www.psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v1/psyche-1–04-korb.html
  149. Kosslyn SM (1975) Information representation in visual images. Cognit Psychol 7:341–370Google Scholar
  150. Kristofferson AB (1967) Successiveness discrimination as a two-state, quantal process. Science 158:1337–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Landa P, Gribkov D, Kaplan A (2000) Oscillatory processes in biological systems. In: Malik SK, Chandrashekaran MK, Pradhan N (eds) Nonlinear phenomena in biological and physical sciences. Indian National Science Academy, New Deli, pp 123–152Google Scholar
  152. Laskaris NA, Ioannides AA (2001) Exploratory data analysis of evoked response single trials based on minimal spanning tree. Clin Neurophysiol 112:698–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Latour PL (1967) Evidence of internal clocks in the human operator. Acta Psychol 27:341–348Google Scholar
  154. Lehar S (2003) Gestalt isomorphism and the primacy of subjective conscious experience: a gestalt bubble model. Behav Brain Sci 26:375–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lehmann D (1971) Multichannel topography of human alpha EEG fields. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 31:439–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Lehmann D, Koenig T (1997) Spatio-temporal dynamics of alpha brain electric fields, and cognitive modes. Int J Psychophysiol 26:99–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Lehmann D, Ozaki H, Pal I (1987) EEG alpha map series: brain micro-states by space oriented adaptive segmentation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 67:271–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Lehmann D, Wackermann J, Michel CM, Koenig T (1993) Space-oriented EEG segmentation reveals changes in brain electric field maps under the influence of a nootropic drug. Psychiatry Res 50:275–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lehmann D, Strik WK, Henggeler B, Koenig T, Koukkou M (1998) Brain electrical micro-states and momentary conscious mind states as building blocks of spontaneous thinking. I. Visual imagery and abstract thoughts. Int J Psychophysiol 29:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Lennie P (1998) Single units and visual cortical organization. Perception 27:889–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Leznik E, Makarenko V, Llinas R (2002) Electrotonically mediated oscillatory patterns in neuronal ensembles: an in vitro voltage-dependent dye-imaging study in the inferior olive. J Neurosci 22:2804–2815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Libet B, Wright EW, Feinstein B, Pearl DK (1979) Subjective referral of the timing for a conscious sensory experience. Brain 102:193–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Libet B, Gleason CA, Wright EW, Pearl DK (1983) Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness potential): the unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain 106:623–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Linkenkaer-Hansen K, Nikouline VM, Palva JM, Iimoniemi RJ (2001) Long-range temporal correlations and scaling behavior in human brain oscillations. J Neurosci 15:1370–1377Google Scholar
  165. Llinas R (1988) The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of mammalian neurons: insights into central nervous system function. Science 242:1654–1664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Llinas R, Ribary U (1998) Temporal conjunction. In: Thalamocortical transactions. Consciousness: at the frontiers of neuroscience (Advances in Neurology), Vol. 77. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 213–217Google Scholar
  167. Llinas R, Ribary U, Contreras D, Pedroarena C (1998) The neuronal basis for consciousness. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 353:1841–1849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Llinas R, Leznik E, Urbano FJ (2002) Temporal binding via cortical coincidence detection of specific and nonspecific thalamocortical inputs: A voltage-dependent dyeimaging study in mouse brain slices. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:449–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Luria AR (1980) Higher cortical functions in man. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  170. Lutz A, Lachaux J-P, Martinerie J, Varela JF (2002) Guiding the study of brain dynamics by using first-person data: synchrony patterns correlate with ongoing conscious states during a simple visual task. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:1586–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Makarenko V, Llinas R (1998) Experimentally determined chaotic phase synchronization in a neuronal system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:15747–15752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Makarenko VI, Welsh JP, Lang EJ, Llinas R (1997) A new approach to the analysis of multidementional neural activity: Markov random fields. Neural Netw 10:785–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mangan BB (1993a) Taking phenomenology seriously: the “fringe” and its implications for cognitive research. Conscious Cogn 2:89–108Google Scholar
  174. Mangan BB (1993b) Some philosophical and empirical implications of the fringe. Conscious Cogn 2:142–154Google Scholar
  175. McGurk H, MacDonald JW (1976) Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature 264:746–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. McIntosh AR (1999) Mapping cognition to the brain through neural interactions. Memroy 7:523–548Google Scholar
  177. McIntosh AR, Fitzpatrick SM, Friston KJ (2001) On the marriage of cognition and neuroscience. NeuroImage 14:1231–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Medison G (2001) Functional modeling of the human timing mechanism. PhD Dissertation, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala, Sweden, 77 ppGoogle Scholar
  179. Meyer DE, Yantis S, Osman AM, Smith JEK (1985) Temporal properties of human information processing: tests of discrete versus continuous models. Cognit Psychol 17:445–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Metzinger T (1995) Faster than thought. Holism, homogeneity and temporal coding. In: Metzinger T (ed) Conscious experience. Imprint Academic and Paderborn, Thorverton, UK, URL = http://www.imprint.co.uk/online/Metz1.html
  181. Michon JA (1985) The complete time experiencer. In: Michon JA (ed) Time, mind, and behavior. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 20–52Google Scholar
  182. Müller GE (1896) Zur psychophysik der gesichtsempfindungen. Z Psychol 10:1–82Google Scholar
  183. Naish P (2001) Hypnotic time perception: Busy beaver or tardy timekeeper. Contemp Hypn 18:87–99Google Scholar
  184. Newman J (1995) Thalamic contributions to attention and consciousness. Conscious Cogn 4:172–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Noë A, Thompson E (2004) Are there neural correlates of consciousness? J Conscious Stud 11:3–28Google Scholar
  186. Nunez PL (1995) Neocortical dynamics and human EEG rhythms. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  187. Nunez PL (2000) Toward a quantitative description of large-scale neocortical dynamic function and EEG. Behav Brain Sci 23:371–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. O’Brien G, Opie J (1999) A connectionist theory of phenomenal experience. Behav Brain Sci 22:127–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Pascual-Marqui R, Michel C, Lehmann D (1995) Segmentation of brain electrical activity into microstates. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 42:658–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Pelliomisz A, Llinas R (1985) Tenzor network theory of the metaorganization of fanctional geometries in the central nervous system. Neuroscience 16:245–273Google Scholar
  191. Pöppel E (1988) Mindworks: time and conscious experience. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, BostonGoogle Scholar
  192. Pöppel E (1996) Reconstruction of subjective time on the basis of hierarchically organized processing system. In: Pastor MA, Arteida J (eds) Time, internal clocks and movement. Elsevier, New York, pp 165–185Google Scholar
  193. Pöppel E (1997) A hierarchical model of temporal perception. Trends Cogn Sci 1:56–61Google Scholar
  194. Pouget A, Dayan P, Zemel R (2000) Information processing with population codes. Nat Rev Neurosci 1:125–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Posner MI (1987) Chronometric exploration of mind. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  196. Poznanski RR (2002) Dendritic integration in a recurrent network. J Integr Neurosci 1:69–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Pylyshyn ZW (2002) Mental imagery: in search of a theory. Behav Brain Sci 25:157–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pulvermüller F (1999) Words in the brain’s language. Behav Brain Sci 22:253–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Purpura DP (1972) Functional studies of thalamic internuclear interactions. Brain Behav 6:203–234Google Scholar
  200. Purushothaman G, Patel SS, Bedell HE, Ögmen H (1998) Moving ahead through differential visual latency. Nature 396:424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Rensing L, Meyer-Grahle U, Ruoff P (2001) Biological timing and the clock metaphor: oscillatory and hourglass mechanisms. Chronobiol Int 18:329–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Revonsuo A (1993) Dennett and dissociations of consciousness. Psycoloquy: 4(59), Split Brain (4), URL = http://www.psycprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/archive/00000353/
  203. Revonsuo A (2000) Prospects for a scientific research program on consciousness. In: Metzinger T (ed) Neural correlates of consciousness. MIT, Cambridge, pp 57–75Google Scholar
  204. Revonsuo A (2001) Can functional brain imaging discover consciousness in the brain? J Conscious Stud 8:3–23Google Scholar
  205. Reynolds JH, Desimone R (1999) The role of neural mechanisms of attention in solving the binding problem. Neuron 24:19–29, 111–125Google Scholar
  206. Robins C, Shepard RN (1977) Spatio-temporal probing of apparent rotational movement. Percept Psychophys 22:12–18Google Scholar
  207. Rodriguez E, George N, Lachaux JP, Martinerie J, Renault B, Varela FJ (1999) Perception’s shadow: long-distance synchronization of human brain activity. Nature 397:430–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sahraie A, Weiskrantz L, Barbur IL, Simmone A, Williams SC, Brammer MJ (1997) Pattern of neocortical activity associated with conscious and unconscious processing of visual signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:9406–9411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Seidemann E, Meilijson I, Abeles M, Bergman H, Vaadia E (1996) Simultaneously recorded single units in the frontal cortex go through sequences of discrete and stable states in monkeys performing a delayed localization task. J Neurosci 16:752–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Shallice T (1964) The detection of change and the perceptual moment hypothesis. Br J Stat Psychol 17:113–135Google Scholar
  211. Shannon C (1948/1949) A mathematical theory of communication. In: Shannon C, Weaver W (eds). The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, pp 623–656Google Scholar
  212. Shevelev IA, Kostelianetz NB, Kamenkovich VM, Sharaev VA (1991) EEG alpha-wave in the visual cortex: check of the hypothesis of the scanning process. Int J Psychophysiol 11:195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Shevelev IA, Kamenkovich VM, Bark ED, Verkhlutov VM, Sharaev VA, Mikhailova ES (2000) Visual illusion and traveling alpha waves produced by flicker at alpha frequencies. Int J Psychophysiol 39:9–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Shishkin SL, Darkhovsky BS, Fingelkurts AlA, Fingelkurts AnA, Kaplan AYa (1998) Interhemispheric synchrony of short-term variations in human EEG alpha power correlates with self-estimates of functional state. In: Proceedings of ninth world congress of psychophysiology, Tvaormin, Sicily/Italy, pp 133Google Scholar
  215. Shepard RN, Metzler J (1971) Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science 191:701–703Google Scholar
  216. Singer W (2001) Consciousness and the binding problem. Ann N Y Acad Sci 929:123–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Singer W, Engel AK, Kreiter AK, Munk MHJ, Neuenschwander S, Roelfsema PR (1997) Neural assemblies: necessity, signature and detectability. Trends Cogn Sci 1:252–261Google Scholar
  218. Skinner JE, Molnar M (2000) “Response cooperativity”: a sign of a nonlinear neocortical mechanism for stimulus-binding during classical conditioning in the act. In: Malik SK, Chandrashekaran MK, Pradhan N (eds) Nonlinear phenomena in biological and physical sciences. Indian National Science Academy, New Deli, pp 223–248Google Scholar
  219. Sternberg A (1969) The discovery of processing stages: extansions of Donders’ method. Acta Psychol 30:276–315Google Scholar
  220. Strik WK, Lehmann D (1993) Data-determined window size and space-oriented segmentation of spontaneous EEG map series. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 87:169–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Stroud JM (1955) The fine structure of psychological time. In: Quastler H (ed) Information theory in psychology: problems and methods. The Free Press, Glencoe, Ill, pp 174–205Google Scholar
  222. Suber P (1988) What is software? J Speculative Philos 2:89–119Google Scholar
  223. Surwillo WW (1966) Time perception and the “internal clock”: some observations on the role of the electroencephalogram. Brain Res 2:390–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Taylor K (2001) Applying continuous modelling to consciousness. J Conscious Stud 8:45–60Google Scholar
  225. Tononi G, Edelman GM (1998) Consciousness and complexity. Science 282:1846–1851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Tonnelier A (2005) Categorization of neural excitability using threshold models. Neural Comput 17:1447–1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Treisman A, Gelade G (1980) A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognit Psychol 12:97–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Treisman M (1963) Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval: implications for a model of the “internal clock.” Psychol Monogr 77:1–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Treisman M (1984) Temporal rhythms and cerebral rhythms. Ann N Y Acad Sci 423:542–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Treisman M, Faulker A, Naish PL, Brogan D (1990) The internal clock: evidence for a temporal oscillator underlying time perception with some estimates of its characteristic frequency. Perception 19:705–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Treisman M, Cook N, Naish PL, MacCrone JK (1994) The internal clock: electroencephalographic evidence for oscillatory processes underlying time perception. Q J Exp Psychol A 47:241–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Triesch J, von der Malsburg C (2001) Democratic integration: self-organized integration of adaptive cues. Neural Comput 13:2049–2074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Truccolo WA, Ding M, Knuth KH, Nakamura R, Bressler S (2002) Trial-to-trial variability of cortical evoked responses: implications for analysis of functional connectivity. Clin Neurophysiol 113:206–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Tsuda I (2001) Toward an interpretation of dynamic neural activity in terms of chaotic dynamical systems. Behav Brain Sci 24:793–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Uhr L (1994) Digital and analog microcircuit and sub-net structures for connectionist networks. In: Honavar V, Uhr L (eds) Artificial intelligence and neural networks: steps toward principled integration. Academic, Boston, pp 341–370Google Scholar
  236. Vaadia E, Haalman I, Abeles M, Bergman H, Prut Y, Slovin H, Aertsen A (1995) Dynamics of neuronal interactions in monkey cortex in relation to behavioural events. Nature 373:515–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Vanagas V (1994) Active, hierarchical visual system organization and attentional information processing. In: 39. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Tehnische Universitat Ilmenau, Thüringen, Band 2, pp 91–94Google Scholar
  238. van Gelder T (1995) What might cognition be, if not computation? J Philos XCI:345–381Google Scholar
  239. VanRullen R, Koch C (2003) Is perception discrete or continuous? Trends Cogn Sci 7:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Varela FJ (2000) Neural synchrony and consciousness: are we going somewhere? Conscious Cogn 9:S26–S27Google Scholar
  241. Varela FJ, Toro A, John ER, Schwartz EL (1981) Perceptual framing and cortical alpha rhythm. Neuropsychologia 19:675–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Varela FJ (1995) Resonant cell assemblies: a new approach to cognitive functions and neuronal synchrony. Biol Res 28:81–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Varela F, Lachaux J-P, Rodriguez E, Martinerie J (2001) The brainweb: phase synchronization and large-scale integration. Nat Rev Neurosci 2:229–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Vartanyan GA, Pirogov AA, Konstantinov KV (1989) Changes produced in neuronal excitability by subthreshold depolarization as a possible mechanism of interval selective relationships within the central nervous system. Neurophysiol 21:201–208Google Scholar
  245. Velmans M (2002) How could conscious experience affect brains? J Conscious Stud 9:3–29Google Scholar
  246. Venables PH (1960) Periodicity in reaction time. Br J Psychol 51:37–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. von Baer KE (1864) Welche Auffasung der lebendigen Natur ist die richtige? Und wie ist diese Auffasung auf die Entomologie auzuwenden? In: Schmitzdorff H (ed) Reden gehalten in wiss. Versammlungen und kleine Aufsätze vermischten Inhalts. Verlag der kaiserl, Hofbuchhandlung, St. Petersburg, pp 237–287Google Scholar
  248. von der Malsburg C (1981) The correlation theory of brain function. Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Postfach 2841, D-3400 Göttingen, FRGGoogle Scholar
  249. von der Malsburg C (1997) The coherence definition of consciousness. In: Ito M, Miyashita Y, Rolls ET (eds) Cognition, computation and consciousness. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 193–204Google Scholar
  250. von der Malsburg C (1999) The what and why of binding: the modeler’s perspective. Neuron 24:95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. von Rospatt A (1995) The buddhist doctrine of momentariness: a survey of the origins and early phase of this doctrine up to Vasubandhu. Franz Steiner Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  252. Warfield JN (1977) Crossing theory and hierarchy mapping. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 7:505–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Watson C (2003) MRI cytoarchitectonics: the next level? J Neurol Sci 211:1–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. White C, Harter MR (1969) Intermittency in reaction time and perception, and evoked response correlates of image quality. Acta Psychol 30:368–377Google Scholar
  255. Wiener N (1961) Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, 2nd edn. MIT, MAGoogle Scholar
  256. Wright JJ, Robinson PA, Rennie CJ, Gordon E, Bourke PD, Chapman CL, Hawthorn N, Lees GJ, Alexander D (2001) Toward an integrated continuum model of cerebral dynamics: the cerebral rhythms, synchronous oscillation and cortical stability. Biosystems 63:71–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Zeki S (2003) The disunity of consciousness. Trends Cogn Sci 7:214–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Zhou YD, Fuster JM (2000) Visuo-tactile cross-modal associations in cortical somatosensory cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:9777–9782PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew A. Fingelkurts
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander A. Fingelkurts
    • 1
  1. 1.BM-SIENCE Brain and Mind Technologies Research CentreEspooFinland

Personalised recommendations