Cognitive Processing

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 73–88 | Cite as

The role of the feedforward paradigm in cognitive psychology

  • Demis BassoEmail author
  • Marta Olivetti Belardinelli


Feedforward control is a process adjusting behaviour in a continuative way. Feedforward takes place when an equilibrium state is disrupted and the system has to automatically retrieve the homeostatic stable state. It also occurs when a perturbation is previewed and must be eliminated in order to achieve a desired goal. According to the most general definition, a feedforward process operates by fixing the future representation of the desired state, the achieving of which stops the process. Then, feedforward works by means of the refinement determined by successive comparisons between the actual and target products. In its applications, a feedforward process is thought to be modulated by the subject’s purpose and the environmental state. Over the years, the feedforward process has assumed different connotations in several contests of cognitive psychology. An overview of the research fields in psychology that significantly progressed with the introduction of a feedforward paradigm is provided by: (a) reviewing models in which the feedforward concept plays a fundamental role in the system control; (b) examining critical experiments related to the interaction of feedforward and feedback processes; (c) evidencing practical applications for some of the presented feedforward-based architectures.


Internal Model Motor Command Feedforward Control Efferent Copy Adaptive Resonance Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to express their thanks to A. Londei, A. Raffone and I. Ruspantini for the helpful comments on a draft version of the manuscript. D.B. was supported by the fund FIRB RBNE018ET9_003.


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Copyright information

© Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology University of PaviaPaviaItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.ECONA, Interuniversity Centre for Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial SystemsRomeItaly
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly

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