, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 625–634 | Cite as

Silica Protection–Sacrifice Functionalization of Magnetic Graphene with a Metal–Organic Framework (ZIF-8) to Provide a Solid-Phase Extraction Composite for Recognization of Phthalate Easers from Human Plasma Samples

  • Yujie Lu
  • Baichun Wang
  • Yinghua YanEmail author
  • Hongze LiangEmail author
  • Dapeng Wu


The integration of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and functionalized magnetic graphene (magG) to form composites has attracted growing attention due to the superimposed properties and extensive applications. However, so far it has not been possible to functionalize but only uncover magnetic graphene to protect its own properties with MOFs. In this work, a template protection–sacrifice (TPS) strategy has been successfully developed to functionalize but also uncover magnetic graphene. SiO2 was used not only a protective shell for magnetic graphene, but also as a sacrificial template to form a two-layer structure. The obtained zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 functionalized magnetic graphene (magG@ZIF-8) composites showed excellent extraction efficiency and promising reusability for phthalate esters with linearity that was between 50 and 8000 ng mL−1, recoveries that varied from 92.1 to 105.3%, relative standard deviation (RSDs) for intra-day and inter-day that was 1.8–4.2% and 3.5–6.5%, limit of detection (LOD) that was in the range of 0.003–0.01 ng mL−1 (S/N = 3), and LOQ that varied from 0.1 to 0.5 ng mL−1 (S/N = 10). More encouragingly, the new synthesized composites were used to analyze nine phthalates in human plasma samples. Our TPS strategy may also provide a new avenue for functionalizing and/or uncovering substrate support materials.


GC–MS Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) Detection Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) magG@ZIF-8 



This work is supported by research funds of NBU (No. 401708090), the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21475131).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Author Yinghua Yan declares that she has no confict of interest. Author Yujie Lu declares that she has no confict of interest. Author Baichun Wang declares that he has no confict of interest. Author Hongze Liang declares that he has no confict of interest. Author Dapeng Wu declares that he has no confict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10337_2018_3673_MOESM1_ESM.docx (999 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 998 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and Chemical EngineeringNingbo UniversityNingboChina

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