, Volume 80, Issue 3, pp 437–446 | Cite as

HPLC Determination of Hexythiazox in Food Samples by MISPE Extraction

  • Javad Feizy
  • Azizollah NezhadaliEmail author
  • Zarrin Es’haghi
  • Hamed Reza Beheshti


A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared for trace analysis of hexythiazox (HTZ) in food samples. In this research, HTZ was used as a template molecule. The MIP was synthesized using pyrrole as a functional monomer. The parameters that affect the efficiency of the method were thoroughly investigated. These parameters were desorption solvent, amount of sorbent, pH and ionic strength. The measurements were done under the optimal conditions. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of method were 71 and 236 ng g−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) of standard solutions of 1000 and 2000 µg L−1 were 0.08 and 0.51%, respectively. The linear range was determined as 100–2000 µg L−1. Application of the method was examined to separation and preconcentration of HTZ in some food samples, with success.

Graphical Abstract


HPLC Solid phase extraction Molecularly imprinted polymer Hexythiazox 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Bicchi C, D’Amato A (1990) Simultaneous determination of clofentezine, fenoxycarb and hexythiazox by HPLC on apples, pears and their pulps. Pest Sci 30:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu Y, Zhao E, Zhu W, Gao H, Zhou Z (2009) Determination of four heterocyclic insecticides by ionic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1216:885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Valenzuela AI, Lorenzini R, Redondo MJ, Font G (1999) Matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of pesticide residues in citrus fruit. J Chromatogr A 839:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaihara A, Yoshii K, Tsunura Y, Nakamura Y, Ishimitsu S, Tonogai Y (2000) Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in fresh fruits and vegetables by supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC. J Health Sci 46:336–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hetherton CL, Sykes MD, Fussell RJ, Goodall DM (2004) A multi-residue screening method for the determination of 73 pesticides and metabolites in fruit and vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:2443–2450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blasco C, Font G, Picó Y (2004) Multiple-stage mass spectrometric analysis of six pesticides in oranges by liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1043:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ventura-Gayete JF, Armenta S, Garrigues S, Morales-Rubio A, de la Guardia M (2006) Multicommutation-NIR determination of Hexythiazox in pesticide formulations. Talanta 68:1700–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McGhie TK, Holland PT, Malcolm CP (1990) Quantitative analysis of hexythiazox by direct insertion probe mass specytrometry. Biol Mass Spectrom 19(4):267–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Batlokwa BS, Mokgadi J, Nyokong T, Torto N (2011) Optimal template removal from molecularly imprinted polymers by pressurized hot water extraction. Chromatographia 73:589–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Malitesta C, Mazzotta E, Picca RA, Poma A, Chianella I, Ye L, Haupt K (2004) MIPs sensors: electrochemical approach. Anal Bioanal Chem 402(5):1827–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Toth B, Hovari G (2012) Chromatograpghy, SPE and capillary electrophoresis, MIPs: towards selective stationary phases in liquid chromatography and electrophoresis. Anal Bioanal Chem 325(6):267–306Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alexander C, Davidson L, Hayes W (2005) Imprinted polymers: artificial molecular recognition materials with applications in synthesis and catalysis. Tetrahedron 59(12):2025–2057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baggiani C, Anfossi L, Giovannoli C (2007) Solid phase extraction of food contaminants using molecular imprinted polymers. Anal Chim Acta 591(1):29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saini SS, Kaur A (2013) Molecularly imprinted polymers for the detection of food toxins: a minireview. Adv Nanopart 2:60–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nezhadali A, Mojarrab M (2014) Computational study and multivariate optimization of hydrochlorothiazide analysis using molecularly imprinted polymer electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotube/polypyrrole film. Sensor Actuat B Chem 190:829–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    He C, Long Y, Pan J, Li K, Liu F (2007) Application of molecularly imprinted polymers to solid-phase extraction of analytes from real samples. J Biochem Biophys Methods 70:133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mehdinia A, Aziz-Zanjani MO, Ahmadifar M, Jabbari A (2013) Design and synthesis of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole based on nano reactor SBA-15 for recognition of ascorbic acid. Biosens Bioelectron 39:88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skotheim TA (1986) Handbook of conducting polymers, vols 1 and 2. Marcel Dekker Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ansari R, Feizy J, Fallah Dellavar A (2008) Removal of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using conducting polymers. Eur J Chem 5(4):853–863Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Park DP, Sung JH, Lim ST, Choi HJ, Jhon MS (2003) Synthesis and characterization of organically soluble polypyrrole/clay nanocomposites. J Mater Sci Lett 22(18):1299–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sellergren B (1994) Direct drug determination by selective sample enrichment on an imprinted polymer. Anal Chem 66:1578–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Martin PD, Jones GR, Stringer F, Wilson ID (2003) Comparison of normal and reversed-phase solid phase extraction methods for extraction of β-blockers from plasma using molecularly imprinted polymers. Analyst 128(4):345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Masuda H, Asanov DK (2003) Preparation and properties of polypyrrole. Synthetic Met 135–136:43–44Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nezhadali A, Feizy J, Beheshti HR (2015) A molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction and determination of fenvalerate from food samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Anal Method 8:1225–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhao EC, Shan WL, Jiang SR, Liu Y, Zhou ZQ (2006) Determination of the hloroacetanilide herbicides in waters using single-drop microextraction and gas chromatography. Microchem J 83:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Soleimani M, Ghaderi S, Ghahraman Afshar M, Soleimani S (2012) Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of bovine albumin from whey, milk, urine and serum. Microchem J 100:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yongfeng K, Wuping D, Yan L, Junxia K, Jing X (2012) Molecularly imprinted polymers of allyl-β-cyclodextrin and methacrylic acid for the solid-phase extraction of phthalate. Carbohydr Polym 88(2):459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    He J, Lv RH, Zhu J, Lu K (2010) Selective solid-phase extraction of dibutyl phthalate from soybean milk using molecular imprinted polymers. Anal Chim Acta 661:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shaabani N, Javanbakht M, Safaraliee L, Eynollahi S (2010) Solid-phase extraction and determination of metoclopramide in biological fluids and human urine by molecularly imprinted polymers. J Sci (Islamic Azad University) 20(76):69–78Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javad Feizy
    • 1
  • Azizollah Nezhadali
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Zarrin Es’haghi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hamed Reza Beheshti
    • 4
  1. 1.Research Institute of Food Science and TechnologyMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPayame Noor UniversityMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryPayame Noor UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Testa Quality Control LaboratoryNorth-East Food Industrial Technology and Biotechnology ParkMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations