Advertisement

Chromatographia

, Volume 80, Issue 3, pp 453–461 | Cite as

Preparation of Toluene-Imprinted Homogeneous Microspheres and Determination of Their Molecular Recognition Toward Template Vapor by Inverse Gas Chromatography

  • Yue Zhang
  • Susu Wang
  • Hui LiEmail author
  • Mengting Gong
Original

Abstract

A toluene-imprinted polymers (MIPs) homogeneous microsphere was prepared by precipitation polymerization technique using toluene as porogen (also as template) with 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) as the functional monomer. Structural characterization was performed by the nitrogen adsorption method and optical microscope utilized for observing particle size of polymers. Retention capability and selectivity for this MIP toward template vapor and its relative compounds were evaluated and the isotherm rebinding capacity of the MIP tested by adopting an inverse gas chromatography method. Results indicated that the toluene-imprinted polymer (MIP3), as a stationary phase in gas chromatography, possessed high retention selectivity toward template vapor, with a retention factor value of 68.42, an imprinting factor value of 7.049, and selectivity factor values of 4.821 and 5.370 for the template relative to benzene and p-xylene, respectively. A model mixture containing toluene, benzene, and p-xylene could be effectively separated, with a resolution of 5.138 for toluene to p-xylene and of 1.762 for toluene to benzene. The isotherm adsorption curve for the MIP3 toward toluene vapor exhibited II type of BET adsorption. Additionally, the toluene-imprinted microspheres showed satisfactory applicability in the removal of toluene from polluted indoor air.

Keywords

Molecularly imprinted polymer Toluene Inverse gas chromatography Molecular recognition Adsorption 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial supports from the National Science Funds of China (No. 21077042) and Research Project for postgraduates in Jishou University, Jishou, China (No. 15JDY008), China, and Aid program (Environment and Energy Materials and deep processing of mineral resources in Wuling Mountain) for Science and Technology Innovative Research Team in Higher Educational Institutions of Hunan Province are acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Su F, Lu C, Hu S (2010) Adsorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene by NaOCl-oxidized carbon nanotubes. Colloid Surf A 353:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fang P, Cen C, Tang Z, Chen D (2010) Adsorption properties of sludge carbon adsorbent for adsorption of toluene. Chin J Chem Eng (Chinese) 24:887–892Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li Y, Miao J, Sun X, Xiao J, Li Y, Wang H, Xia Q, Li Z (2016) Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-BTC@GO with enhanced water stability and toluene adsorption capacity. Chem Eng J 298:191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hussein MS, Ahmed MJ (2016) Fixed bed and batch adsorption of benzene and toluene from aromatic hydrocarbons on 5A molecular sieve zeolite. Mater Chem Phys 181:512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xu D, Ma J, Zhao H, Liu Z, Li R (2016) Adsorption and diffusion of  n-heptane and toluene over mesostructured ZSM-5 zeolitic materials with acidic sites. Fluid Phase Equilibr 423:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang Y, Su X, Xu Z, Wen K, Zhang P, Zhu J, He H (2016) Preparation of surface-functionalized porous clay heterostructures via carbonization of soft-template and their adsorption performance for toluene. Appl Surf Sci 363:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang W, Wang H, Zhu T, Fan X (2015) Removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene over Mn, Ag and Ce modified HZSM-5 catalysts by periodical operation of adsorption and non-thermal plasma regeneration. J Hazard Mater 292:70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Slioor RI, Kanervo JM, Keskitalo TJ, Krause AOI (2008) Gas phase adsorption and desorption kinetics of toluene on Ni/γ-Al2O3. Appl. Catal A-Gen 344:183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang W, Qu Z, Li X, Wang Y, Ma D, Wu J (2012) Comparison of dynamic adsorption/desorption characteristics of toluene on different porous materials. J Environ Sci 24:520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen L, Xu S, Li J (2011) Recent advances in molecular imprinting technology: current status, challenges and highlighted applications. Chem Soc Rev 40:2922–2942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guo L, Jiang X, Yang C, Zhang H (2008) Analysis of sulfamerazine in pond water and several fishes by high-performance liquid chromatography using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction. Anal Bioanal Chem 391:2291–2298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li H, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Liao H, Nie L, Yao S (2005) Separation and purification of chlorogenic acid by molecularly imprinted polymer monolithic stationary phase. J Chromatogra A 1098:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kan X, Zhao Q, Zhang Z, Wang Z, Zhu J (2008) Molecularly imprinted polymers microsphere prepared by precipitation polymerization for hydroquinone recognition. Talanta 75:22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Feng Q, Zhao L, Yan W, Lin J, Zheng Z (2009) Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography for analysis of phenolic compounds from environmental water samples. J Hazard Mater 167:282–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tan C, Tong Y (2007) Molecularly imprinted beads by surface imprinting. Anal Bioanal Chem 389:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yin J, Cui Y, Yang G, Wang H (2010) Molecularly imprinted nanotubes for enantioselective drug delivery and controlled release. Chem Commun 46:7688–7690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aghaei A, Hosseini MRM, Najafi M (2010) A novel capacitive biosensor for cholesterol assay that uses an electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer. Electrochim Acta 55:1503–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tominaga Y, Kubo T, Yasuda K, Kato K, Hosoya K (2012) Development of molecularly imprinted porous polymers for selective adsorption of gaseous compounds. Micropor MesoporMater 156:161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fu Y, Finklea HO (2003) Quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic vapor detection based on molecularly imprinted polymers. Anal Chem 75:5387–5393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    İlter Z, Demir A, Kaya İ (2016) Thermodynamics of poly (7-methoxy-2-acetylbenzofurane methyl methacrylate-co-styrene) and poly (2-acetylbenzofurane methyl methacrylate-co-styrene)-probe interactions at different temperatures by inverse gas chromatography. J Chem Thermodyn 102:130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bendada K, Hamdi B, Boudriche L, Balard H, Calvet R (2016) Surface characterization of reservoir rocks by inverse gas chromatography: effect of a surfactant. Colloid Surf A 504:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sousa S, Pedrosa J, Ramos A, Ferreira PJ, Gamelas JA (2016) Surface properties of xylan and xylan derivatives measured by inverse gas chromatography. Colloid Surf A 506:600–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mohammadi-Jam S, Waters KE (2014) Inverse gas chromatography applications: a review. Adv Colloid Interfac 212:21–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li H, Lu C, Xie F, Xu M, Wang S, Li Z (2014) Investigation on gas phase recognition for metal-ion mediated formaldehyde imprinted polymer by inversed phase gas chromatography. Chin J Anal Chem (Chinese) 42:885–890Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boutboul A, Lenfant F, Giampaoli P, Feigenbaum A, Ducruet V (2002) Use of inverse gas chromatography to determine thermodynamic parameters of aroma–starch interactions. J Chromatogr A 969:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Valero-Navarro Á, Gómez-Romero M, Fernández-Sánchez JF, Cormack PA, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A (2011) Synthesis of caffeic acid molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres and high-performance liquid chromatography evaluation of their sorption properties. J Chromatogr A 1218:7289–7296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Azenha M, Schillinger E, Sanmartin E, Regueiras MT, Silva F, Sellergren B (2013) Vapor-phase testing of the memory-effects in benzene-and toluene-imprinted polymers conditioned at elevated temperature. Anal Chim Acta 802:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringJishou UniversityJishouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and UtilizationJishou UniversityJishouChina

Personalised recommendations