Advertisement

Chromatographia

, Volume 77, Issue 17–18, pp 1185–1194 | Cite as

Electroentrapment of Polyaniline in [3-(2,3-Epoxypropoxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane-Derived Xerogel: A Facile Methodology Towards Molecularly Imprinted Xerogels

  • Habib Bagheri
  • Hamed Piri-Moghadam
Original

Abstract

A novel polyaniline (PANI)/silica hybrid composite, as a selective coating, was synthesized by the simultaneous sol–gel process and in situ electro-polymerization of aniline and employed for imprinting naproxen. The synthesized composite was chemically bonded inside a copper tube for online capillary microextraction (CME) in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The copper tube was intended for use as an unbreakable substrate for CME and the HPLC injection loop. Four copper tubes containing different coatings were prepared accordingly to achieve the most appropriate extracting medium for naproxen. Coating 1 was a xerogel of [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane (EPPTMOS) synthesized by sol–gel technology and PANI as a conductive polymer (CP) was electrochemically prepared as coating 2. Coating 3 (sol–gel–CP) included the electroentrapped PANI into the xerogel of EPPTMOS, representing the non-imprinted xerogel (NIX) and coating 4, the molecularly imprinted xerogel (MIX), contained entrapped PANI into the xerogel of EPPTMOS, while naproxen template was already imprinted into the composite structure. Extraction efficiency of MIX towards naproxen was about 4–30 times greater than the others. Electroentrapped PANI into the silica xerogel might be responsible for the enhanced extraction efficiency, originating from high surface area of PANI as well as its role in ππ interactions. The mild conditions used in this process enabled the incorporation of organic species such as PANI into the silica particles without degradation. The main advantage of addition of PANI during the sol–gel process was the reduction of gelation time from more than a week to a few hours and, therefore, achieving a facile and controllable method for preparation of selective media. Furosemide, clodinafop-propargyl and haloxyfop-etotyl were also selected to investigate selectivity of the prepared MIX towards naproxen. Ratio of MIX/NIX, a criterion of selectivity, was 3.8, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.4 for naproxen, clodinafop, haloxyfop and furosemide, respectively. The linearity of the HPLC method for naproxen was in the range of 10–1,000 µg L−1. The limit of detection value was found to be 5 µg L−1 and RSD % of 2.9 (n = 5) was obtained. Real samples such as blood plasma and urine species were analyzed by the developed method and the relative recovery percentages of 76 and 94 % were obtained for the spiked samples.

Keywords

Column liquid chromatography Capillary microextraction Silica/polyaniline Molecularly imprinted xerogel Sol–gel technique 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Research Council and Graduates School of Sharif University of Technology (SUT) are thanked for supporting the project.

References

  1. 1.
    Arthur CL, Pawliszyn J (1990) Anal Chem 62:2145–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mirnaghi FS, Mousavi F, Rocha SM, Pawliszyn J (2013) J Chromatogr A 1276:12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ke Y, Zhu F, Zeng F, Luan T, Su C, Ouyang G (2013) J Chromatogr A 1300:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li X, Ouyang G, Lord H, Pawliszyn J (2010) Anal Chem 82:9521–9527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang X, Oakes KD, Luong D, Wen JZ, Metcalfe CD, Pawliszyn J, Servos MR (2010) Anal Chem 82:9492–9499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang X, Oakes KD, Hoque ME, Luong D, Metcalfe CD, Pawliszyn J, Servos MR (2011) Anal Chem 83:3365–3370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mirnaghi FS, Chen Y, Sidisky LM, Pawliszyn J (2011) Anal Chem 83:6018–6025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matsunaga T, Daifuku H, Nakajima T, Kawagoe T (1990) Polym Adv Technol 1:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Duek E, De Paoli M, Mastragostino M (1992) Adv Mater 4:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boyle A, Genies EM, Lapkowski M (1989) Synth Met 28:769–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sathiyanarayanan S, Muthukrishnan S, Venkatachari G, Trivedi DC (2005) Prog Org Coat 53:297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gospodinova N, Terlemezyan L (1998) Prog Polym Sci 23:1443–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wallace GG, Smyth M, Zhao H (1999) Trends Anal Chem 18:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hughes RC, Ricco AJ, Butler MA, Martin SJ (1991) Science 254:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    White HS, Kittlesen GP, Wrighton MS (1984) J Am Chem Soc 106:5375–5377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gonza´lez M, Soares BG, Magioli M, Marins JA, Rieumont J (2012) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 63:373–381Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu CG, Bein T (1994) Science 264:1757–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mansouri J, Burford RP (1994) J Membr Sci 87:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parthasarathy RV, Martin CR (1994) Chem Mater 6:1627–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Feldheim DL, Elliot M (1992) J Membr Sci 70:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dunn B, Mackenzie JD, Zink JI, Stafsudd OM (1990) Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 1328:174–182Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wei Y, Yeh JM, Jin D, Jia X, Wang J, Jang GW, Chen C, Gumbs RW (1995) Chem Mater 7:969–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sanchez C, Ribot F (1994) New J Chem 18:1007–1047Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sanchez C, Alonso B, Chapusot F, Ribot F, Audebert P (1994) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 2:161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    de Azevedo WM, de Souza JM, de Melo JV (1999) Synth Met 100:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sivaraman P, Rath SK, Hande VR, Thakur AP, Patri M, Samu AB (2006) Synth Met 156:1057–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saraji M, Rezaei B, Khalili Boroujeni M, Hajialiakbari Bidgoli AA (2013) J Chromatogr A 1279:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang Y, Wang X, Li J, Mo Z, Zhao X, Jing X, Wang F (2001) Adv Mater 13:1582–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bagheri H, Piri-Moghadam H, Es’haghi A (2011) J Chromatogr A 1218:3952–3957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bagheri H, Piri-Moghadam H, Ahdi T (2012) Anal Chim Acta 742:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bagheri H, Piri-Moghadam H (2012) Anal Bioanal Chem 404:1597–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bagheri H, Piri-Moghadam H, Bayat P, Balalaie S (2013) Anal Methods 5:7096–7101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li X, Wang Z, Li X, Wang G (2012) Appl Surf Sci 258:4788–4793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eisert R, Pawliszyn J (1997) Anal Chem 69:3140–3147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lord H, Pawliszyn J (2000) J Chromatogr A 885:153–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu J, Xie W, Pawliszyn J (2000) Analyst 125:2216–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Saleh A, Larsson E, Yamini Y, Jönsson JÅ (2011) J Chromatogr A 1218:1331–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aresta A, Palmisano F, Zambonin CG (2005) J Pharm Biomed Anal 39:643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Martín MJ, Pablos F, González AG (1999) Talanta 49:453–459Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sarafraz-Yazdi A, Amiri A, Rounaghi G, Eshtiagh-Hosseini H (2012) J Chromatogr B 908:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cruz-Vera M, Lucena R, Cárdenas S, Valcárcel M (2008) J Chromatogr A 1202:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Theodoridis G, Aikaterini Lontou M, Michopoulos F, Sucha M, Gondov T (2004) Anal Chim Acta 516:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of ChemistrySharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations