Advertisement

Chromatographia

, Volume 75, Issue 3–4, pp 139–148 | Cite as

Inside-Needle Extraction Method Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Solid-Phase Dynamic Extraction and Preconcentration of Triazine Herbicides Followed by GC–FID Determination

  • Djavanshir Djozan
  • Mir Ali Farajzadeh
  • Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin
  • Tahmineh Baheri
  • Jamal Norouzi
Original

Abstract

An inside-needle extraction method was developed through thermal polymerization of atrazine-molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) on the internal surface of a stainless steel hollow needle, which was oxidized and silylated. The fabricated coating (MIP layer) for the needle was durable and showed very good chemical and thermal stability. It could be mounted on a glass syringe and be directly coupled with gas chromatographic (GC) systems. The parameters being effective on the coating and extraction processes, namely nature of oxidizing agent, silylation time, nature and amount of porogen, template-to-MIP components ratio, polymerization time and temperature, sample volume, flow rate, pH and ionic strength of the sample were investigated and optimized. The extraction needle showed high selectivity as well as a great extraction capacity for triazines. The extraction of atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, ametryn, prometryn and terbutryn using the fabricated extraction needle and followed by GC analysis resulted in detection limits of 2.6, 21, 24, 32, 38 and 42 ng mL−1, respectively. The fabricated needle proved to be applicable to the analysis of real samples by comparing the results obtained for non-spiked and spiked samples of grape juice, tap water and groundwater.

Keywords

Stainless steel extraction needle Molecularly imprinted polymer Solid-phase dynamic extraction Gas chromatography Atrazine 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Research Office at the University of Tabriz for financial support.

References

  1. 1.
    Rodriguez E, Barrio RJ, Goicolea A, Gomez de Balugera Z (1999) Anal Chim Acta 384:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Valsamaki VI, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA (2007) J Sep Sci 30:1936–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sanchez-Ortega A, Sampedro MC, Unceta N, Goicolea MA, Barrio RJ (2005) J Chromatogr A 1094:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zeng J, Chen J, Lin Z, Chen W, Chen X, Wang X (2008) Anal Chim Acta 619:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Santana dos Santos TF, Aquino A, Dorea HS, Navickiene S (2008) Anal Bioanal Chem 390:1425–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang F, Yue Y, Hua R, Cao H (2006) J AOAC Int 89:498–502Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schellin M, Hauser B, Popp P (2004) J Chromatogr A 1040:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vinas P, Aguinaga N, Campillo N, Hernandez-Cordoba M (2008) J Chromatogr A 1194:178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yao F, Fu GD, Zhao J, Kang ET, Neoh KG (2008) J Membr Sci 319:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Luciano RM, Bedendo GC, Carletto JS, Carasek E (2010) J Hazard Mater 177:567–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coelho E, Perestrelo R, Neng NR, Camara JS, Coimbra MA, Nogueira JMF, Rocha SM (2008) Anal Chim Acta 624:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kawaguchi M, Ito R, Honda H, Endo N, Okanouchi N, Saito K, Seto Y, Nakazawa H (2008) J Chromatogr A 1200:260–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pawliszyn J (1997) Solid phase micro-extraction. Wiley–VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lambropoulou D, Sakellarides T, Albanis Fresenius T (2000) Anal Chem 368:616–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sabik H, Jeannot R, Rondeau B (2000) J Chromatogr A 885:217–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Quintana J, Martí I, Ventura F (2001) J Chromatogr A 938:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dj D, Pournaghi-Azar MH, Bahar S (2004) Chromatographia 59:595–599Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dj D, Assadi Y (2004) Chromatographia 60:313–317Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Musshoff F, Lachenmeier DW, Kroener L, Madea B (2003) Forensic Sci Int 133:32–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Musshoff F, Lachenmeier DW, Kroener L, Madea B (2002) J Chromatogr A 958:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kubinec R, Berezkin VG, Gorova R, Addova G, Mracnova H, Sojak L (2004) J Chromatogr B 800:295–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eom IY, Tugulea AM, Pawliszyn J (2008) J Chromatogr A 1196–1197:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eom IY, Niri VH, Pawliszyn J (2008) J Chromatogr A 1196–1197:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holthoff EL, Bright FV (2007) Anal Chim Acta 594:147–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jiang X, Zhao C, Jiang N, Zhang H, Liu M (2008) Food Chem 108:1061–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wei S, Jakusch M, Mizaikoff B (2006) Anal Chim Acta 578:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prathish KP, Prasad K, PrasadaRao T, Suryanarayana MVS (2007) Talanta 71:1976–1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ulbricht M (2004) J Chromatogr B 804:113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dj D, Baheri T, Pournaghi Azar MH, Mahkam M (2007) Mater Manuf Processes 22:758–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dj D, Baheri T (2007) J Chromatogr A 1166:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dj D, Ebrahimi B (2008) Anal Chim Acta 616:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dj D, Farajzadeh MA, Sorouraddin SM, Baheri T (2011) Chromatographia 73:975–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Djozan D, Ebrahimi B, Mahkam M, Farajzadeh MA (2010) Anal Chim Acta 674:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hu X, Dai G, Huang J, Ye T, Fan H, Youwen T, Yu Y, Liang Y (2010) J Chromatogr A 1217:5875–5882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shojania S, Oleschuk RD, McComb ME, Gesser HD, Chow A (1999) Talanta 50:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koziel JA, Odziemkowski M, Pawliszyn J (2001) Anal Chem 73:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Berezkin VG, Makarov ED, Stolyarov BV (2003) J Chromatogr A 985:63–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yılmaz S, Ipek M, Celebi GF, Bindal C (2005) Vacuum 77:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vigil E, Dixon D, Hamilton JWJ, Byrne JA (2009) Surf Coat Technol 203:470–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yu JCC, Krushkova S, Lai EPC, Dabek-Zlotorzynska E (2005) Anal Bioanal Chem 382:1534–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tüken T, Yazici B, Erbil M (2007) Surf Coat Technol 202:425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zadaka D, Nir Sh, Radian A, Mishael YG (2009) Water Res 43:677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Graziano N, Mcguire MJ, Roberson A, Adams C, jiang H, Blute N (2006) Environ Sci Technol 40:1163–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cerejeira MJ, Viana P, Batista S, Pereira T, Silva E, Valeʼrio MJ, Silva A, Ferreira M, Silva-Fernandes AM (2003) Water Res 37:1055–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Papastergiou A, Papadopoulou-Mourkidou E (2001) Environ Sci Technol 35:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Crescenzi C (2000) Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. Meyers RA (ed). Wiley, West SussexGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schweitz L, Andersson LI, Nilsson S (1997) Anal Chem 69:1179–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schweitz L, Andersson LI, Nilsson S (1997) J Chromatogr A 792:401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhongbo Z, Hu J (2008) Water Res 42:4101–4108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huang SD, Huang HI, Sung YH (2004) Talanta 64:887–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cháfer-Pericás C, Herráez-Hernández R, Campíns-Falcó P (2006) J Chromatogr A 1125:159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mou RX, Chen MX, Cao ZhY, Zhu ZhW (2011) Anal Chim Acta (in press)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nagaraju D, Huang ShD (2007) J Chromatogr A 1161:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shen G, Lee HK (2002) Anal Chem 74:648–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dj D, Ebrahimia B, Mahkam M, Farajzadeh MA (2010) Anal Chim Acta 674:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Prasad K, Prathish KP, Mary Gladis J, Naidu GRK, Prasada Rao T (2007) Sens Actuators B123:65–70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Djavanshir Djozan
    • 1
  • Mir Ali Farajzadeh
    • 1
  • Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin
    • 1
  • Tahmineh Baheri
    • 2
  • Jamal Norouzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of ChromatographyUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.The Research Center of Antinarcotics PoliceTehranIran

Personalised recommendations