Combination of Extraction by Silylated Vessel-Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction as a High-Enrichment Factor Technique: Optimization and Application in Preconcentration of Some Triazole Pesticides from Aqueous Samples Followed by GC-FID Determination
This study describes an extraction method based on silylated extraction vessel-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (SEV-DLLME) for preconcentration of some triazole pesticides (penconazole, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, diniconazole, triticonazole, and difenconazole) from aqueous samples. For this purpose, the interior surface of funnel-shaped extraction vessel is activated by concentrated NaOH and HCl solutions, silylated by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and used in extraction of the analytes from a relatively high volume of aqueous sample. The adsorbed analytes are desorbed by methanol, which acts as a dispersive solvent in the following DLLME method. In the first step, the effects of different factors i.e., concentrations of NaOH, HCl, and silylated agent and their contact times were studied using central composite design (CCD) and response surface method. Extraction time, extraction solvent (chloroform) volume, dispersive solvent (methanol) volume, centrifugation rate and time, and salting-out effect in DLLME procedure were optimized in the same way using CCD, in the second step. High enrichment factors (EFs) (more than 1,000 in most cases) and low detection limits (at sub μg L−1 level) are attainable by using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed method are good and the relative standard deviations (RSD %) for six repeated experiments (C = 100 μg L−1 of each pesticide) are less than 7.25%. Finally, the method was successfully applied in determination of analytes in some aqueous samples such as wastewater, well water, and some fruit juice samples.