, Volume 73, Issue 3–4, pp 313–319 | Cite as

Application of Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Analysis of Six Fungicides in Fruit Samples by GC–ECD

  • Xin Huo
  • Qing Li
  • Xiangyun Lin
  • Xiaohui Chen
  • Kaishun Bi


A novel approach for the determination of six fungicides (triadimefon, procymidone, hexaconazole, myclobutanil, diniconazole and iprodione) in fruit samples is presented. Analytes were extracted using the dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction technique and determined by GC–ECD. Parameters affecting the dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction performance, such as the kind and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time and salt concentration, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the linearities of the method were obtained in the range of 0.5–20.0 μg kg−1 for triadimefon, hexaconazole, diniconazole and procymidone, and 1.0–40.0 μg kg−1 for myclobutanil and iprodione, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9902 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors ranged from 685 to 820 and the extraction recoveries ranged from 81.3 to 98.4%. The relative standard deviations varied from 3.1 to 7.8%. The limits of detection of the method were in the range of 0.02–0.12 μg kg−1. Results showed that the method we proposed can meet the requirements for the determination of target fungicides in fruit samples. Several compounds considered in this study were found in fruit samples.


Gas chromatography-electron capture detection Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction Fungicides Fruit samples 


  1. 1.
    Rial-Otero R, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J (2003) J Chromatogr A 992:121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu L, Chen MX, Mou RX, Ying XH, Cao ZY (2009) Chin J Instrum Anal 11:351–356Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu GF, Nie JY, Li J, Li HF (2009) Chin J Pesticide Sci 28:846–848Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Correia M, Delerue-Matos C, Alves A (2001) Fresenius J Anal Chem 369:647–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zambonin CG, Cilenti A, Palmisano F (2002) J Chromatogr A 967:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Urruty L, Montury M, Braci M, Fournier J, Dournel JM (1997) J Agric Food Chem 45:1519–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Urruty L, Montury M (1996) J Agric Food Chem 44:3871–3877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lambropoulou DA, Konstantinou IK, Albanis TA (2000) J Chromatogr A 893:143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Viñas P, Aguinaga N, Campillo N, Hernández-Córdoba M (2008) J Chromatogr A 1194:178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rezaee M, Assadi Y, Millani MR, Aghaee E, Ahmadi F, Berijani S (2006) J Chromatogr A 1116:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rahnama-Kozani R, Assadi Y, Shemirani F, Milani-Hosseini MR, Jamali MR (2007) Talanta 72:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fattahi N, Assadi Y, Milani-Hosseini MR, Zeini-Jahromi E (2007) J Chromatogr A 1157:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fariña L, Boido E, Carrau F, Dellacassa E (2007) J Chromatogr A 1157:46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    García-López M, Rodríguez I, Cela R (2007) J Chromatogr A 1166:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nagaraju D, Huang SD (2007) J Chromatogr A1161:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yazdi AS, Razavi N, Yazdinejad SR (2008) Talanta 75:1293–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li Y, Wei G, Hu J, Liu X, Zhao X, Wang X (2008) Anal Chem 615:96–103Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chiang JS, Huang SD (2008) Talanta 75:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leong MI, Huang SD (2008) J Chromatogr A 1211:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao E, Zhao W, Han L, Jiang S, Zhou Z (2007) J Chromatogr A 1175:137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fu LY, Liu XJ, Hu J, Zhao XN, Wang HL, Wang XD (2009) Anal Chim Acta 632:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhou X, Zang XH, Wang DY, Cui PL, Wang Z (2009) Chin J Anal Chem 37:41–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Huo
    • 1
  • Qing Li
    • 1
  • Xiangyun Lin
    • 1
  • Xiaohui Chen
    • 1
  • Kaishun Bi
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of PharmacyShenyang Pharmaceutical UniversityShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations