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Minimum longevity and age-related male plumage in Darwin’s finches on Floreana Island

  • Ashley Langton
  • Sonia KleindorferEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Several Darwin’s finch populations on the Galapagos Islands are declining and/or locally extinct. Acoustic surveys provide useful information about population size, but do not provide information on the age or morphology of birds. This study uses mist netting data collected during 2004–2016 on Floreana Island with the aim of evaluating minimum longevity in Darwin’s finches. The study species are the Small Tree Finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), hybrid tree finches (Camarhynchus spp.), Medium Tree Finch (Camarhynchus pauper), and Small Tree Finch (Geospiza fuliginosa). In total, 1032 Darwin’s finches were mist netted and 86 of 707 males and 14 of 325 females were recaptured across years. We used the proportion of black plumage to age males, and the age at first capture plus the number of years between recapture to estimate minimum longevity. Minimum longevity ranged from 12 to 15 years and was lowest in the critically endangered C. pauper (12 years). The average number of years between first capture and last recapture was significantly lower in females than in males. Because long-term mist netting provides information on age structure, recruitment and longevity in males and females, it should be a key component of effective conservation planning.

Keywords

Camarhynchus Geospiza Galapagos Monitoring Morphology Recruitment 

Zusammenfassung

Mindestlebensdauer und altersassoziierte Männchenbefiederung von Darwin-Finken auf der Insel Floreana.

Einige Arten der Darwin-Finken auf den Galapagos-Inseln weisen rückläufige beziehungsweise lokal ausgestorbene Populationen auf. Akustische Untersuchungen liefern nützliche Informationen über die Populationsgröße, jedoch nicht über Alter und Morphologie. Diese Studie stützt sich auf Fangdaten, die im Zeitraum 2004–2016 mittels Japannetzen auf der Insel Floreana gesammelt wurden. Ziel der Studie ist, die artspezifische Mindestlebensdauer von vier Darwin-Finkenarten zu ermitteln. Die untersuchten Arten sind: Kleiner Baumfink (Camarhynchus parvulus), Hybrider Baumfink (Camarhynchus spp.), Mittlerer Baumfink (C. pauper) und Kleiner Grundfink (Geospiza fuliginosa). Insgesamt wurden 1032 Individuen gefangen, wobei 86 der 707 Männchen und 14 der 325 Weibchen über den Untersuchungszeitraum hinweg wiedergefangen wurden. Zur Altersschätzung der Männchen errechneten wir den schwarzen Gefiederanteil, und zur Schätzung der Mindestlebensdauer (ergo des Mindesthöchstalters) die Summe von „Erstfangalter“ und „Anzahl der Jahre zwischen Fang und Wiederfang“. Die Mindestlebensdauer lag zwischen 12 und 15 Jahren und war am niedrigsten bei C. pauper (12 Jahre). Die durchschnittliche Anzahl der Jahre zwischen Erstfang und letztem Wiederfang war bei Weibchen signifikant geringer als bei Männchen. Da langfristige Fang-Wiederfang-Studien Informationen über Altersstruktur, Populationsdynamik und Lebensdauer bei Männchen und Weibchen liefern, sollten sie einen zentralen Bestandteil in der effektiven Naturschutzplanung bilden.

Notes

Acknowledgements

For research support, we thank the Galapagos National Park Service and the Charles Darwin Research Station. For financial support, we thank the following organizations: the Australian Research Council, the Rufford Small Grant Foundation, the Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund, the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds/Birdfair, the Earthwatch Institute and the Australian Federation of University Women (SA). For field assistance, we thank David Roldan Arango, Rebekah Christensen, Rachael Dudaniec, Jefferson Garcia Loor, Wesley Loo, Jody O’Connor, Katharina Peters, Jeremy Robertson, and David Wiedenfield. The authors declare that all experimental procedures in this study complied with the current laws of the Galapagos Islands and the Republic of Ecuador.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in the studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted. This study was approved by the Flinders University Animal Welfare Committee (E270, E393). This publication is contribution no. 2218 of the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands.

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Copyright information

© Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Science and EngineeringFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle and Department of Behavioural BiologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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