Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 156, Supplement 1, pp 217–225 | Cite as

Protecting stopover habitat for migratory shorebirds in East Asia

Review

Abstract

Many migratory species depend on staging sites at which they refuel while on migration, and effective protection of such habitats is crucial to their conservation. Here we investigate the extent to which protected areas cover and ameliorate loss of tidal flats in East Asia, the key staging habitat for threatened and declining shorebirds migrating through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. We discover rapid losses of the tidal flat ecosystem both inside (−0.42 % year−1) and outside (−0.89 % year−1) protected areas. In China, tidal flats are well represented within protected areas (22.9 % of current tidal flats occur within protected areas), but habitat loss continued despite protection (−0.55 % year−1 inside, −0.97 % year−1 outside). By contrast, in South Korea, where 12.1 % of remaining tidal flat is in protected areas, the rate of habitat loss outside protected areas was the highest in our study region (−1.83 % year−1), yet inside protected areas there was tidal flat aggradation (+1.13 % year−1), indicating either that protected area placement is biased away from vulnerable habitats, or protected areas are highly effective in South Korea. Tidal flats across our study area were lost most rapidly in internationally important sites for migratory shorebirds (−1.66 % year−1), suggesting that transformative land use change of coastal areas is occurring disproportionately in regions that are important for migratory birds. We urge (1) improved management of existing protected areas in East Asia, particularly in China, (2) targeted designation of new protected areas in sites crucial for supporting migratory birds and (3) integrated decision-making that simultaneously plans for coastal development and coastal conservation.

Keywords

Protected areas Migratory species China South Korea North Korea Coastal development Habitat loss 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank R. Ferrari, D. Melville, J. Mackinnon, X. Yan and Z. Ma for advice and discussion. This project was supported by an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant LP100200418, co-funded by the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management, the Commonwealth Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, the Queensland Wader Study Group and the Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd. Additional support was provided by Birds Queensland, the Australian Government’s National Environmental Science Programme’s Threatened Species Recovery Hub, and the CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship. Landsat data are freely available from the US Geological Survey.

Supplementary material

10336_2015_1225_MOESM1_ESM.docx (57 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)

References

  1. Amano T, Szekely T, Koyama K, Amano H, Sutherland WJ (2010) A framework for monitoring the status of populations: an example from wader populations in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Biol Conserv 143:2238–2247. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. An S, Li H, Guan B, Zhou C, Wang Z, Deng Z, Zhi Y, Liu Y, Xu C, Fang S, Jiang J, Li H (2007) China’s natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges. Ambio 36:335–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andam KS, Ferraro PJ, Pfaff A, Sanchez-Azofeifa GA, Robalino JA (2008) Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:16089–16094. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0800437105 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bamford M, Watkins D, Bancroft W, Tischler G, Wahl J (2008) Migratory shorebirds of the East Asian–Australasian Flyway: population estimates and internationally important sites. Wetlands International-Oceania, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  5. Barter MA (2002) Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea: importance, threats and conservation status. Wetlands International, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  6. Bi X, Wang B, Lu Q (2011) Fragmentation effects of oil wells and roads on the Yellow River delta, North China. Ocean Coast Manag 54:256–264. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carranza T, Balmford A, Kapos V, Manica A (2013) Protected area effectiveness in reducing conversion in a rapidly vanishing ecosystem: the Brazilian Cerrado. Conserv Lett 7:216–223. doi: 10.1111/conl.12049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CCICED (2010) The sustainable development of China’s ocean and coasts: ecological issues and policy recommendations. China Council for International Cooperation on the Environment and Development, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  9. Cho DO, Olsen SB (2003) The status and prospects for coastal management in Korea. Coast Manag 31:99–119. doi: 10.1080/08920750390168327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choi YR (2014) Modernization, development and underdevelopment: reclamation of Korean tidal flats, 1950s–2000s. Ocean Coast Manag 102:426–436. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choi K-H, Lee S-M, Lim S-M, Walton M, Park G-S (2010) Benthic habitat quality change as measured by macroinfauna community in a tidal flat on the west coast of Korea. J Oceanogr 66:307–317. doi: 10.1007/s10872-010-0027-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark NE, Boakes EH, McGowan PJK, Mace GM, Fuller RA (2013) Protected areas in South Asia have not prevented habitat loss: a study using historical models of land-use change. PLoS One 8:e65298. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065298 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colwell MA (2010) Shorebird ecology, conservation and management. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  14. Congalton RG, Green K (2008) Assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data: principles and practices. CRC, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Creed KE, Bailey M (1998) Decline in migratory waders at Pelican Point, Swan River, Western Australia. Stilt 33:162–175Google Scholar
  16. Dawes J (2012) The declining population of Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea indicates that it may now be endangered in New South Wales. Stilt 60:9–13Google Scholar
  17. Department of Environment (2014a) Consultation document on listing eligibility and conservation actions: Calidris ferruginea (Curlew Sandpiper). Department of Environment, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  18. Department of Environment (2014b) consultation document on listing eligibility and conservation actions: Numenius madagascariensis (Eastern Curlew). Department of Environment, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  19. Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R (2008) Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321:926–929. doi: 10.1126/science.1156401 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gaston KJ, Jackson SF, Cantú-Salazar L, Cruz-Piñón G (2008) The ecological performance of protected areas. Annu Rev Ecol Evol S 39:93–113. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173529 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gaveau DL, Epting J, Lyne O, Linkie M, Kumara I, Kanninen M, Leader-Williams N (2009) Evaluating whether protected areas reduce tropical deforestation in Sumatra. J Biogeogr 36:2165–2175. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02147.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goward S, Williams D, Arvidson T, Irons J (2011) The future of Landsat-class remote sensing. In: Ramachandran B, Justice COO, Abrams MJ (eds) Land remote sensing and global environmental change, vol 11. Remote sensing and digital image processing. Springer, New York, pp 807–834. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6749-7_35 Google Scholar
  23. Green EP, Mumby PJ, Edwards AJ, Clark CD (1996) A review of remote sensing for the assessment and management of tropical coastal resources. Coast Manag 24:1–40. doi: 10.1080/08920759609362279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Green JMH, Larrosa C, Burgess ND, Balmford A, Johnston A, Mbilinyi BP, Platts PJ, Coad L (2013) Deforestation in an African biodiversity hotspot: extent, variation and the effectiveness of protected areas. Biol Conserv 164:62–72. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. He Q, Bertness MD, Bruno JF, Li B, Chen G, Coverdale TC, Altieri AH, Bai J, Sun T, Pennings SC, Liu J, Ehrlich PR, Cui B (2014) Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China. Sci Rep 4:5995. doi: 10.1038/srep05995 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Healy T, Wang Y, Healy J (2002) Muddy coasts of the world: processes, deposits, and function. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  27. Hua N, Tan K, Chen Y, Ma Z (2015) Key research issues concerning the conservation of migratory shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region. Bird Conserv Int 25:38–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IUCN (2014) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014. 2. International Union for Conservation of Nature, GlandGoogle Scholar
  29. IUCN and UNEP (2014) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). UNEP–WCMC. http://www.protectedplanet.net. Accessed 13 Mar 2014
  30. Iwamura T, Possingham HP, Chadès I, Minton C, Murray NJ, Rogers DI, Treml EA, Fuller RA (2013) Migratory connectivity magnifies the consequences of habitat loss from sea-level rise for shorebird populations. Proc Roy Soc B 280:20130325. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.0325 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Iwamura T, Fuller RA, Possingham HP (2014) Optimal management of a multispecies shorebird flyway under sea-level rise. Conserv Biol 28:1710–1720. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12319 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Joppa LN, Pfaff A (2011) Global protected area impacts. Proc Roy Soc B 278:1633–1638. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Joppa LN, Loarie SR, Pimm SL (2008) On the protection of “protected areas”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:6673–6678. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0802471105 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Juffe-Bignoli D, Burgess ND, Bingham H, Belle EMS, de Lima MG, Deguignet M, Bertzky B, Milam AN, Martinez-Lopez J, Lewis E, Eassom A, Wicander S, Geldmann J, van Soesbergen A, Arnell AP, O’Connor B, Park S, Shi YN, Danks FS, MacSharry B, Kingston N (2014) Protected planet report 2014. UNEP-WCMC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Keith DA, Rodríguez JP, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Nicholson E, Aapala K, Alonso A, Asmussen M, Bachman S, Basset A, Barrow EG, Benson JS, Bishop MJ, Bonifacio R, Brooks TM, Burgman MA, Comer P, Comín FA, Essl F, Faber-Langendoen D, Fairweather PG, Holdaway RJ, Jennings M, Kingsford RT, Lester RE, Nally RM, McCarthy MA, Moat J, Oliveira-Miranda MA, Pisanu P, Poulin B, Regan TJ, Riecken U, Spalding MD, Zambrano-Martínez S (2013) Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. PLoS One 8:e62111. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062111 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim SG (2010) The evolution of coastal wetland policy in developed countries and Korea. Ocean Coast Manag 53:562–569. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.06.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kingsford RT, Porter JL (2009) Monitoring waterbird populations with aerial surveys—what have we learnt? Wildlife Res 36:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Le Saout S, Hoffmann M, Shi Y, Hughes A, Bernard C, Brooks TM, Bertzky B, Butchart SHM, Stuart SN, Badman T, Rodrigues ASL (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science 342:803–805. doi: 10.1126/science.1239268 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lotze HK, Lenihan HS, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke RG, Kay MC, Kidwell SM, Kirby MX, Peterson CH, Jackson JBC (2006) Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312:1806–1809. doi: 10.1126/science.1128035 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ma Z, Li B, Li W, Han N, Chen J, Watkinson AR (2009) Conflicts between biodiversity conservation and development in a biosphere reserve. J Appl Ecol 46:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ma Z, Melville DS, Liu J, Chen Y, Yang H, Ren W, Zhang Z, Piersma T, Li B (2014) Rethinking China’s new great wall. Science 346:912–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MacKinnon J, Verkuil YI, Murray NJ (2012) IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea). IUCN, Gland, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin TG, Chadès I, Arcese P, Marra PP, Possingham HP, Norris DR (2007) Optimal conservation of migratory species. PLoS One 2:e751PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McGranahan G, Balk D, Anderson B (2007) The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environ Urban 19:17–37. doi: 10.1177/0956247807076960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Minton C, Dann P, Ewing A, Taylor S, Jessop R, Anton P, Clemens R (2012) Trends of shorebirds in corner Inlet, Victoria, 1982–2011. Stilt 61:3–18Google Scholar
  46. Murray NJ, Phinn SR, Clemens RS, Roelfsema CM, Fuller RA (2012) Continental scale mapping of tidal flats across East Asia using the Landsat archive. Remote Sens 4:3417–3426. doi: 10.3390/Rs4113417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Murray NJ, Clemens RS, Phinn SR, Possingham HP, Fuller RA (2014) Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea. Front Ecol Environ 12:267–272. doi: 10.1890/130260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murray NJ, Ma Z, Fuller RA (2015) Tidal flats of the Yellow Sea: a review of ecosystem status and anthropogenic threats. Austral Ecol. doi: 10.1111/aec.12211 Google Scholar
  49. Nebel S, Porter JL, Kingsford RT (2008) Long-term trends of shorebird populations in eastern Australia and impacts of freshwater extraction. Biol Conserv 141:971–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pereira HM, Ferrier S, Walters M, Geller GN, Jongman RHG, Scholes RJ, Bruford MW, Brummitt N, Butchart SHM, Cardoso AC, Coops NC, Dulloo E, Faith DP, Freyhof J, Gregory RD, Heip C, Höft R, Hurtt G, Jetz W, Karp DS, McGeoch MA, Obura D, Onoda Y, Pettorelli N, Reyers B, Sayre R, Scharlemann JPW, Stuart SN, Turak E, Walpole M, Wegmann M (2013) Essential biodiversity variables. Science 339:277–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Phinn SR, Menges C, Hill GJE, Stanford M (2000) Optimizing remotely sensed solutions for monitoring, modeling, and managing coastal environments. Remote Sens Environ 73:117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. R Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  53. Rodríguez JP, Keith DA, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Murray NJ, Nicholson E, Regan TJ, Miller RM, Barrow EG, Bland LM, Boe K, Brooks TM, Oliveira-Miranda MA, Spalding M, Wit P (2015) A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria. Phil Trans Soc B. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0003 Google Scholar
  54. Rogers DI, Hassell C, Oldland J, Clemens R, Boyle A, Rogers K (2009) Monitoring Yellow Sea Migrants in Australia (MYSMA): North-western Australian shorebird surveys and workshops, December 2008. Arthur Rylah Institute Heidelberg, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  55. Rogers DI, Yang H-Y, Hassell CJ, Boyle AN, Rogers KG, Chen B, Zhang Z-W, Piersma T (2010) Red Knots (Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi) depend on a small threatened staging area in Bohai Bay. China Emu 110:307–315. doi: 10.1071/MU10024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Runge CA, Martin TG, Possingham HP, Willis SG, Fuller RA (2014) Conserving mobile species. Front Ecol Environ 12:395–402. doi: 10.1890/130237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sato S (2006) Drastic change of bivalves and gastropods caused by the huge reclamation projects in Japan and Korea. Plankton Benthos Res 1:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Seto KC, Güneralp B, Hutyra LR (2012) Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:16083–16088. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1211658109 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spalding MD, Fish L, Wood LJ (2008) Toward representative protection of the world’s coasts and oceans—progress, gaps, and opportunities. Conserv Lett 1:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sutherland WJ, Pullin AS, Dolman PM, Knight TM (2004) The need for evidence-based conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 19:305–308. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.03.018 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. UNDP/GEF (2007) The Yellow Sea: analysis of environmental status and trends. Ansan, Republic of KoreaGoogle Scholar
  62. UNEP (2003) DPR Korea: state of the environment 2003. United Nations Environment ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  63. Watson JEM, Dudley N, Segan DB, Hockings M (2014) The performance and potential of protected areas. Nature 515:67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Weber TP, Houston AI, Ens BJ (1999) Consequences of habitat loss at migratory stopover sites: a theoretical investigation. J Avian Biol 30:416–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wessel P, Smith WHF (1996) A global, self-consistent, hierarchical, high-resolution shoreline database. J Geophys Res 101:8741–8743. doi: 10.1029/96jb00104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wilson HB, Kendall BE, Fuller RA, Milton DA, Possingham HP (2011) Analyzing variability and the rate of decline of migratory shorebirds in Moreton Bay, Australia. Conserv Biol 25:758–766. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01670.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wu R, Zhang S, Yu DW, Zhao P, Li X, Wang L, Yu Q, Ma J, Chen A, Long Y (2011) Effectiveness of China’s nature reserves in representing ecological diversity. Front Ecol Environ 9:383–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yang H-Y, Chen B, Barter B, Piersma T, Zhou C-F, Li F-S, Zhang Z-W (2011) Impacts of tidal land reclamation in Bohai Bay, China: ongoing losses of critical Yellow Sea waterbird staging and wintering sites. Bird Conserv Int 21:241–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zockler C, Syroechkovskiy EE, Atkinson PW (2010) Rapid and continued population decline in the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus indicates imminent extinction unless conservation action is taken. Bird Conserv Int 20:95–111. doi: 10.1017/s0959270910000316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship and CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations