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Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 155, Issue 1, pp 157–164 | Cite as

Species abundance and migratory status affects large-scale fruit tracking in thrushes (Turdus spp.)

  • José L. Tellería
  • Luis M. Carrascal
  • Tomás Santos
Original Article

Abstract

The mutualistic interactions between fruit-producing plants and seed-dispersing birds may be disrupted by the difficulties involved in tracking fruit resources, which are often patchily distributed in space and time. As a consequence, the strength of this interaction will rely on the ability of birds to distribute numbers according to the spatiotemporal patterning of the resource. This paper tests if wintering thrushes (Turdus) track inter-winter and inter-site changes of cone abundance in an area that encompasses the main range of the Spanish Juniper Juniperus thurifera in the Iberian highlands. We test whether the regional abundance and migratory status of birds affect this fruit-tracking process. Analyses were approached by using the habitat matching rule, a null model applied to explore the effect of spatiotemporal change of resources on bird distribution. All species followed inter-winter food variation over the study area but under-matched the changes. The strength of this bird–plant interaction increased with the regional abundance of individual species. When thrushes were analyzed according to their migratory status, migratory species (Turdus pilaris, T. iliacus, and T. philomelos) tracked the resource better than sedentary ones (T. viscivorus and T. merula). This suggests that in a time of rapid environmental change any reduction of vagrant and abundant migratory thrushes could weaken the strength of this bird–plant interaction.

Keywords

Frugivorous birds Juniperus thurifera Habitat matching rule Turdus spp. Winter distribution 

Zusammenfassung

Artenvielfalt und Zugvogelstatus beeinflussen die großräumige Standortverfolgung von Nahrungsfrüchten bei Drosseln ( Turdus spp.)

Die gegenseitig vorteilhaften Interaktionen zwischen Frucht tragenden Pflanzen und Samen verbreitenden Vögeln kann gestört werden durch die Schwierigkeit Fruchtressourcen zu finden, da diese häufig unregelmäßig verteilt sind. Daher beruht die Stärke dieser Interaktion auf der Fähigkeit der Vögel sich nach der räumlichen und zeitlichen Verteilung der Ressource zu richten. Diese Studie testet ob überwinternde Drosseln (Turdus) Unterschiede in der Zapfenmenge an Spanischen Wacholdern (Juniperus thurifera) zwischen Wintern und zwischen den Gebieten der Iberischen Hochlagen verfolgen können. Wir untersuchen, ob der regionale Bestand und der Zugstatus der Vögel einen Einfluss hat auf ihre Fähigkeit Nahrungsfrüchte zu finden. Anhand eines Nullmodels berechneten wir den Effekt der räumlich-zeitlichen Verschiebung der Ressourcenverfügbarkeit auf die Verteilung der Vögel. Alle Arten in unserem Studiengebiet folgten dem Futter zwischen den Wintern, aber konnten mit den Veränderungen nie ganz Schritt halten. Die Interaktion zwischen Vögeln und Pflanzen verstärkte sich mit dem Zugvogelstatus, denn ziehende Vögel (Turdus pilaris, T. iliacus, T. philomelos) fanden Ressourcen besser als Standvögel (T. viscivorus and T. merula). Das legt nahe, dass in einer Zeit von sich wandelnden Umweltbedingungen ein Bestandseinbruch bei ziehenden Drosseln die Interaktion zwischen Vögeln und Pflanzen stark schwächen würde.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper, funded by Projects CGL2008-2011/BOS and CGL2011-22953/BOS of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, is a contribution to the International Campus of Excellence launched by Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM) and the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC). Two anonymous reviewers considerably improved an early version of the paper.

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Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • José L. Tellería
    • 1
  • Luis M. Carrascal
    • 2
  • Tomás Santos
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. de Zoología y Antropología FísicaUniversidad Complutense, CEI-MoncloaMadridSpain
  2. 2.Dept. de Biogeografía y Cambio GlobalMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSICMadridSpain

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