Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 154, Issue 2, pp 329–337 | Cite as

Molecular genetic and bioacoustic differentiation of Pnoepyga Wren-babblers

  • Martin Päckert
  • Jochen Martens
  • Wei Liang
  • Yu-Cheng Hsu
  • Yue-Hua Sun
Original Article

Abstract

We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny for all four species of the wren-babbler genus Pnoepyga and added a comparative analysis of their territorial songs. The genus is divided into two species pairs which can also be distinguished by ecological and bioacoustic features. One species pair, Pnoepyga albiventer and P. formosana, occupies the higher forested mountain elevations of the Sino-Himalayas and Taiwan and shares broad-banded songs with a marked element-type variation. The second species pair, Pnoepyga pusilla and P. immaculata, occupies median and low mountain elevations of the Sino-Himalayas, continental Southeast Asia, and the Sunda region and has characteristic narrow-banded whistled songs. Intraspecific variation of molecular and bioacoustic markers in P. albiventer was conspicuous among individuals from Nepal and those from the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Hubei. A third distinct genetic lineage of P. albiventer was found in Myanmar. We suggest that the Chinese form be ranked as a separate species Pnoepyga mutica Thayer & Bangs, 1912.

Keywords

Wren-babblers Pnoepyga Molecular phylogeny Territorial song Discriminant analysis Cluster analysis 

Zusammenfassung

Molekulargenetische und bioakustische Differenzierung derPnoepyga-Moostimalien

In einer molekularen Phylogenie und einer Analyse der Territorialgesänge der Moostimalien, Gattung Pnoepyga, gliedern sich die vier Arten sowohl nach genetischen als auch nach akustischen und ökologischen Befunden in zwei Gruppen zu je zwei Arten. Das eine Artenpaar mit P. albiventer und P. formosana lebt in den höheren bewaldeten Gebirgsabschnitten der Sino-Himalayanischen Region und Taiwans. Ihre Gesänge sind breitbandig. Das andere Artenpaar bestehend aus P. pusilla und P. immaculata besiedelt die mittlere und untere Gebirgszone der Sino-Himalayanischen Region, des südostasiatischen Festlandes und Teilen des Sunda-Archipels, mit Beschränkung von P. immaculata auf den zentralen Himalaya. Beide Arten zeichnen sich durch schmalbandige Pfiffgesänge aus. Individuelle Variabilität der Gesänge des einzelnen Männchens ist äußerst gering. Intraspezifische Variabilität der genetischen und der akustischen Merkmale von P. albiventer ist bemerkenswert hoch und betrifft die Populationen Nepals einerseits und jene der chinesischen Provinzen Sichuan und Hubei andererseits. Diese Unterschiede werden als gravierend angesehen und die Populationen Chinas folglich als eigene Spezies gewertet, Pnoepyga mutica Thayer & Bangs, 1912.

Supplementary material

10336_2012_897_MOESM1_ESM.doc (34 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 34 kb)
10336_2012_897_MOESM2_ESM.doc (160 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 160 kb)

References

  1. Badyaev AV, Leaf ES (1997) Habitat associations of song characteristics in Phylloscopus and Hippolais warblers. Auk 114:40–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boncoraglio G, Saino N (2007) Habitat structure and the evolution of bird song: a metaanalysis of the evidence for the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. Funct Ecol 21:134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng T-H (1987) A synopsis of the Avifauna of China. Science Press/Paul Parey, Beijing/HamburgGoogle Scholar
  4. Collar NJ (2006) A partial revision of the Asian babblers (Timaliidae). Forktail 22:85–112Google Scholar
  5. Collar NJ, Robson C (2007) Timaliidae (Babblers). In: delHoyo J, Elliot A A, Christie D (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world volume 12—Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx, Barcelona, pp 70–291Google Scholar
  6. Dickinson EC (2003) The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, 3rd edn. Christopher Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Gelang M, Cibois A, Pasquet E, Olsson U, Alström P, Ericson PGP (2009) Phylogeny of babblers (Aves: Passeriformes): major lineages, family limits and classification. Zool Scripta 38:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harrap S (1989) Identification, vocalizations and taxonomy of Pnoepyga wren-babblers. Forktail 5:61–70Google Scholar
  9. Harrap S (2011) Nepal Wren Babbler Pnoepyga immaculata: 25 years on. BirdingASIA 15:81–83Google Scholar
  10. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17:754–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hunter ML, Krebs JR (1979) Geographical variation in the song of the great tit (Parus major) in relation to ecological factors. J Anim Ecol 48:759–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Inskipp TP, Lindsey N, Duckworth W (1996) An annotated checklist of the birds of the Oriental region. Oriental Bird Club, BedfordshireGoogle Scholar
  13. Inskipp TP, Collar NJ, Pilgrim JP (2010) Species-level and other changes suggested for Asian birds, 2009. BirdingASIA 14:59–67Google Scholar
  14. Martens J (1998) Geographische Variabilität der Lautäußerungen von Sperlingsvögeln—Auswirkungen auf Artbildung und Artkonzept (Aves: Passeriformes: Oscines). Zool Abh Staatl Mus Tierk Dresden 50[Suppl]:35–50Google Scholar
  15. Martens J, Bahr N (2011) Dokumentation neuer Vogel-Taxa 5.—Bericht für 2009. Vogelwarte 49:85–104Google Scholar
  16. Martens J, Eck S (1991) Pnoepyga immaculata n. sp., eine neue bodenbewohnende Timalie aus dem Nepal-Himalaya. J Ornithol 132:179–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martens J, Eck S (1995) Towards an ornithology of the Himalayas. Systematics, ecology and vocalizations of Nepal birds. Bonner Zool Monogr 38:1–445Google Scholar
  18. Martens J, Geduldig G (1990) Acoustic adaptations of birds living close to Himalayan torrents. In: Proc Int. 100th DO-G Meeting: Current Topics Avian Biol. Bonn (1988), pp 123–131Google Scholar
  19. Martens J, Eck S, Sun Y-H (2002) Certhia tianquanensis Li, a treecreeper with relict distribution in Sichuan. China J Ornithol 143:440–456Google Scholar
  20. Mayr E, Paynter AR (1964) Check-list of the birds of the World, vol. 10. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, pp 293–295Google Scholar
  21. Moyle RG, Andersen MJ, Oliveros CH, Steinheimer FD, Reddy S (2012) Phylogeny of core babblers. Syst Biol 61:631–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nylander JAA (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  23. Päckert M, Martens J, Sun Y-H (2010) Phylogeny of long-tailed tits and allies inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers (Aves: Passeriformes, Aegithalidae). Mol Phyl Evol 55:952–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Päckert M, Martens J, Sun Y-H, Severinghaus LL, Nazarenko AA, Ji T, Töpfer T, Tietze DT (2012) Horizontal and elevational phylogeographic patterns of Himalayan and Southeast Asian forest passerines (Aves: Passeriformes). J Biogeogr 39:556–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sharpe RB (1881) Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching birds, in the collection of the British Museum. Cichlomorphae: part III. Cat Birds Coll Brit Mus 6:302–303Google Scholar
  26. Silvestro D, Michalak I (2011) raxmlGUI: a graphical front-end for RAxML. Org Divers Evol. doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0056-0
  27. Stamatakis A (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22:2688–2690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thayer JE, Bangs O (1912) Birds [of the Ernest Henry Wilson and Walter Reaves Zappey central China expedition 1907–1909]. Mem Mus Comp Zool Harv Coll 40:137–200Google Scholar
  30. Wilson EH (1896–1952) Diaries, series: W.IV: Wilson’s third expedition to China 1907–1909; diary from the expedition to Western Szechuan, Min Valley, Mount Wa, Mont Omei, with Kiating as a base, May 11–Aug 12 1908. III EHW, box 7, folder 4. Arnold Arboretum Library of Harvard University, Boston. Available at: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu
  31. Wolters E (1980) Die Vogelarten der Erde, Lieferung 5. P. Parey, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Päckert
    • 1
  • Jochen Martens
    • 2
  • Wei Liang
    • 3
  • Yu-Cheng Hsu
    • 4
  • Yue-Hua Sun
    • 5
  1. 1.Senckenberg Naturhistorische SammlungenMuseum für TierkundeDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für ZoologieJohannes Gutenberg-UniversitätMainzGermany
  3. 3.College of Life SciencesHainan Normal UniversityHaikouChina
  4. 4.Department of National Resources and Environmental StudiesNational Dong Hwa UniversityHualienTaiwan
  5. 5.Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation, Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations