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Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 154, Issue 1, pp 173–181 | Cite as

Asymmetric seasonal nest site competition between Great Tits and House Sparrows

  • Motti CharterEmail author
  • Yossi Leshem
  • Ido Izhaki
Original Article

Abstract

Using nest boxes with different sized entrances, we experimentally examined whether a large species of cavity breeder (House Sparrow, Passer domesticus) affects the nest box occupancy and breeding success of a smaller species (Great Tit, Parus major), and whether there are differences in the effects of competition during different parts of the breeding season. Great Tits occupied nest boxes regardless of the number of House Sparrows breeding in the vicinity. During the second part of the breeding season, the percentage of successful Great Tit pairs was negatively correlated with the occupation of nest boxes by the House Sparrows, in both the large- and small-entrance nest boxes. More Great Tit pairs bred and more young were fledged in the small- than large-entrance nest boxes. Great Tits occupied more large-entrance nest boxes during the first than the second part of the breeding season. This difference was probably due to House Sparrows occupying more large-entrance nest boxes during the second than first part of the breeding season. 74 % of the large-entrance nest boxes in which Great Tits built nests in both the first and second parts of the season were later occupied by House Sparrows. Great Tits preferred large-entrance nest boxes in the fall, when House Sparrows use only a few boxes for roosting, but not for breeding. The findings indicate that Great Tits are subject to interspecific competition with House Sparrows for nesting cavities, the intensity of which varies during the breeding season and is higher during the second part when more House Sparrows breed.

Keywords

Cavity Breeding success Experimental study Nest box 

Zusammenfassung

Asymmetrische saisonale Nistplatzkonkurrenz zwischen Kohlmeise Parus major und Haussperling Passer domesticus

Mit Hilfe von Nistkästen mit unterschiedlich großen Öffnungen untersuchten wir experimentell, ob eine große höhlenbrütende Art (Haussperling, Passer domesticus) die Besetzung von Nistkästen durch eine kleinere höhlenbrütende Art (Kohlmeise, Parus major) und deren Bruterfolg beeinflusst und ob es Unterschiede in den Effekten der Konkurrenz zu verschiedenen Zeiten der Brutsaison gibt. Kohlmeisen besetzten Nistkästen unabhängig von der Zahl der in der Nähe brütenden Haussperlinge. Während des zweiten Teils der Brutsaison war der Anteil von erfolgreichen Kohlmeisen-Paaren negativ korreliert mit der Besetzung von Nistkästen durch den Haussperling, und zwar sowohl in Nistkästen mit großen als auch kleinen Eingangsöffnungen. In den Nistkästen mit kleinen Eingangsöffnungen brüteten mehr Kohlmeisenpaare und mehr Jungvögel wurden flügge als in den Kästen mit großer Eingangsöffnung. Kohlmeisen besetzten im ersten Teil der Brutsaison mehr Nistkästen mit großer Eingangsöffnung als im zweiten Teil. Dieser Unterschied kam wahrscheinlich dadurch zustande, dass Haussperlinge im zweiten Teil der Brutsaison mehr Nistkästen mit großer Eingangsöffnung besetzten als im ersten. 74 % der Nistkästen mit großer Eingangsöffnung, in denen Kohlmeisen sowohl im ersten als auch zweiten Teil der Brutsaison nisteten, wurden später von Haussperlingen besetzt. Kohlmeisen bevorzugten im Herbst Nistkästen mit großer Eingangsöffnung, wenn Haussperlinge nur wenige Kästen zum schlafen nutzen, aber nicht zum brüten. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass Kohlmeisen mit Haussperlingen in einer interspezifischen Konkurrenz um Bruthöhlen stehen, deren Intensität sich im Verlauf der Brutsaison ändert und im zweiten Teil größer ist, wenn mehr Haussperlinge brüten.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the residents of Moshav Ram-On for their assistance. Special thanks to Shai Halevi. Hava Ravid, Uri Ravid, and Daniel Berkowic for technical assistance in the field, to Arnon Lotem and Gadi Katzir for advice, to André Dhondt and Shai Markman for comments on the manuscript, and to Naomi Paz for editorial assistance.

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Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoology DepartmentTel-Aviv UniversityRamat-Aviv, Tel-AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Evolutionary and Environmental BiologyUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael
  3. 3.Department of Ecology and Evolution, BiophoreUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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