Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 152, Issue 3, pp 759–768 | Cite as

Do leucocyte profiles reflect temporal and sexual variation in body condition over the breeding cycle in Southern Rockhopper Penguins?

  • Nina Dehnhard
  • Maud Poisbleau
  • Laurent Demongin
  • Petra Quillfeldt
Original Article

Abstract

Southern Rockhopper Penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) have a strongly synchronised breeding cycle with a fixed pattern of nest attendance for males and females. We studied leucocyte profiles and the development of granulocyte/lymphocyte (G/L) ratios as an indicator of stress. Variation in G/L ratios were related to sex and breeding stage, but not individual body condition. G/L ratios were similar for males and females during the first part of the incubation period (“shared incubation”, when males and females both attend the nest), but in the second part of the incubation (“single incubation”, only one adult attends the nest), females had significantly higher G/L ratios and a lower body condition than males. The lowest G/L ratios were recorded during the crèche of the chicks at the end of the breeding season. Our results show that G/L ratios in breeding Southern Rockhopper Penguins on the population-scale reflect the temporally and sexually different timing of fasting and refeeding related to the breeding cycle. However, this measurement was not sensitive enough to reveal an effect of body condition on G/L ratios on an individual scale.

Keywords

Southern Rockhopper Penguin Breeding biology Immunology G/L ratios Body condition Stress 

Zusammenfassung

Südliche Felsenpinguine (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) haben einen stark synchronisierten Brutzyklus. Während der Inkubation und Kükenaufzucht wechseln sich Männchen und Weibchen am Nest in einem festgelegten Muster ab. Wir untersuchten Leukozyten-Profile und die Entwicklung des Granulocyten/Lymphozyten (G/L) Verhältnisses als Indikator von Stress. Das G/L Verhältnis war abhängig von Geschlecht und Brutphase (Inkubation, Kükenaufzucht), aber nicht individueller Körperkondition. Männchen und Weibchen hatten ähnliche G/L Verhältnisse in der ersten Phase der Inkubation (“gemeinsame Inkubation”, wenn Männchen und Weibchen gemeinsam das Nest bewachen und die Eier bebrüten). Weibchen hatten signifikant höhere G/L Verhältnisse und geringere Körperkondition als Männchen in der zweiten Phase der Inkubation (“einzelne Inkubation”, nur ein Elternteil bleibt am Nest). Wir fanden die niedrigsten G/L Verhältnisse während der Crèche (Küken bleiben tagsüber allein und formen kleine Gruppen, sog. Crèches) am Ende des Brutzyklus. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das G/L Verhältnis das zeitliche Muster von Fasten und Gewichtszunahme während des Brutzyklus für Männchen und Weibchen des südlichen Felsenpinguins auf Populationsebene gut widerspiegelt. Auf individueller Ebene war diese Methode jedoch nicht subtil genug um einen Effekt von Körperkondition auf das G/L Verhältnis nachzuweisen.

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Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nina Dehnhard
    • 1
  • Maud Poisbleau
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laurent Demongin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Petra Quillfeldt
    • 1
  1. 1.Vogelwarte RadolfzellMax Planck Institute for OrnithologyRadolfzellGermany
  2. 2.Department Biology, EthologyUniversity of AntwerpWilrijk, AntwerpBelgium

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