Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 151, Issue 4, pp 915–921 | Cite as

Long-distance travellers stopover for longer: a case study with spoonbills staying in North Iberia

  • Juan G. Navedo
  • Germán Orizaola
  • José A. Masero
  • Otto Overdijk
  • Juan M. Sánchez-Guzmán
Original Article

Abstract

Long-distance migration is widespread among birds, connecting breeding and wintering areas through a set of stopover localities where individuals refuel and/or rest. The extent of the stopover is critical in determining the migratory strategy of a bird. Here, we examined the relationship between minimum length of stay of PVC-ringed birds in a major stopover site and the remaining flight distance to the overwintering area in the Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea l. leucorodia) during four consecutive autumn migrations. We also analysed the potential effect of timing (arrival date), as well as the role of experience in explaining stopover duration of spoonbills. Overall, birds wintering in Africa, and facing long-distance travel from the stopover site (ca. 3,000 km) stay for longer (2.7 ± 0.4 days) than Iberian winterers (1.5 ± 0.2 days) that perform a much shorter migration (ca. 800 km). These differences were consistent between years. Stopover duration was not significantly affected by the age of the bird. However, there was a significant reduction as migration advanced. Our results suggest that spoonbills develop different stopover strategies depending on the expected distance to the wintering grounds. Adults, especially long-distance migratory ones, could reduce the potential negative effects of density-dependence processes by avoiding stopover at the end of the migration period. These findings are of significant relevance for understanding differences in migratory behaviour within single populations, especially for declining waterbirds, as well as stress the relevance of preserving stopover localities for the conservation of intraspecific diversity in migratory species.

Keywords

Experience Intraspecific competition Migratory strategies Spoonbill Stopover duration Timing 

References

  1. Alerstam T, Hedenström A (1998) The development of bird migration theory. J Avian Biol 29:343–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alerstam T, Lindström A (1990) Optimal bird migration: the relative importance of time, energy and safety. In: Gwinner E (ed) Bird migration: physiology and ecophysiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 331–351Google Scholar
  3. Alerstam T, Hedenström A, Åkesson S (2003) Long-distance migration: evolution and determinants. Oikos 103:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Battley PF, Rogers DI, van Gils JA, Piersma T, Hassell CJ, Boyle A, Yang HY (2005) How do red knots Calidris canutus leave Northwest Australia in May and reach the breeding grounds in June? predictions of stopover times, fuelling rates and prey quality in the Yellow Sea. J Avian Biol 36:494–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauchau V, Horn H, Overdijk O (1998) Survival of spoonbills on Wadden Sea islands. J Avian Biol 29:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berthold P (2001) Bird migration. University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. BirdLife (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife Conservation Series 12. BirdLife International, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Boileau N, Caupenne M, Le Campion T (2001) Ecologie alimentaire de la spatule blanche Platalea leucorodia en migration postnuptiale dans le marais de Brouage (Charente-Maritime). Ann Soc Sci Nat Charente-Maritime 9:207–218Google Scholar
  9. Cristol DA, Baker MB, Carbone C (1999) Differential migration revisited: latitudinal segregation by age and sex-class. In: Nolan V Jr, Ketterson ED, Thompson CF (eds) Current ornithol 15. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  10. De Voogd M (2004) Methods to sex juvenile Spoonbills and Sex-specific migration in Spoonbills. Master Thesis. Rijksuniversiteit GroningenGoogle Scholar
  11. Dierschke V, Delingat J (2001) Stopover behaviour and departure decision of northern wheatears, Oenanthe oenanthe, facing different onward non-stop flight distances. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50:535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drent R, Both C, Green M, Madsen J, Piersma T (2003) Pay-offs and penalties of competing migratory schedules. Oikos 103:274–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gill RE, Piersma T, Hufford G, Servranckx R, Riegen A (2005) Crossing the ultimate ecological barrier: evidence for a 11000-km-long nonstop flight form Alaska to New Zealand and eastern Australia by Bar-tailed Godwits. Condor 107:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gudmunsson GA, Lindström A, Alerstam T (1991) Optimal fat loads and long-distance flights by migrating Knots Calidris canutus, Sanderlings C. alba and Turnstones Arenaria interpres. Ibis 133:140–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hake M, Kjellén N, Alerstam T (2003) Age-dependent migration strategy in honey buzzards Pernis apivorus tracked by satellite. Oikos 103:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hedenström A (2008) Adaptations to migration in birds: behavioural strategies, morphology and scaling effects. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci 363:287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hedenström A, Alerstam T (1997) Optimum fuel loads in migratory birds: distinguishing between time and energy minimization. J Theor Biol 189:227–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee DL, Black JM, Moore JE, Sedinger JS (2008) Age-specific stopover ecology of Black Brant at Humboldt Bay, California. Ecol 119:9–22Google Scholar
  19. Lorenzo M, De le Court C (2007) Spoonbill winter population in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic islands. In: 31st Annual Meeting of the Waterbird Society. Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, p. 176Google Scholar
  20. Meissner W (2007) Stopover strategy of adult and juvenile Red Knots Calidris c. canutus in the Puck Bay, southern Baltic. Ardea 95:97–104Google Scholar
  21. Navedo JG (2006a) Identifying stopover wetlands for the conservation of an endangered waterbird species: the role of Santoña Marshes for the Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia during autumn migration. In: Triplet P, Overdijk O (eds) EUROSITE Spoonbill Working Group Newsletter, Vol. 4. pp. 48–51Google Scholar
  22. Navedo JG (2006b) Efectos del marisqueo tradicional sobre la alimentación de las aves limícolas en áreas intermareales: aportaciones para la gestión de los estuarios cantábricos. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad de Cantabria, p. 165Google Scholar
  23. Navedo JG (2008) Different stopover timing in juvenile and adult spoonbills during southward migration. In: Triplet P, Overdijk O, Smart, M (eds) EUROSITE Spoonbill Working Group Newsletter, Vol. 6. pp. 2–5Google Scholar
  24. Navedo JG, Masero JA (2007) Measuring potential negative effects of traditional harvesting practices on waterbirds: a case study with migrating curlews. Anim Cons 10:88–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Newton I (2004) Population limitation in migrants. Ibis 146:197–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Newton I (2006) Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds? J Ornithol 147:146–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Newton I (2008) The migration ecology of birds. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Nolet BA, Gyimesi A, Klaassen RHG (2006) Prediction of bird-day carrying capacity on a staging site: a test of depletion models. J Anim Ecol 75:1285–1292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Pennycuick CJ, Battley PF (2003) Burning the engine: a time-marching computation of fat and protein consumption in a 5420-km non-stop flight by great knots, Calidris tenuirostris. Oikos 103:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Piersma T (1987) Hop, skip or jump? constraints on migration of arctic waders by feeding, fattening and flight speed. Limosa 60:185–194 (In Dutch with English summary)Google Scholar
  31. Piersma T, Zwarts L, Bruggemann JH (1990) Behavioural aspects of the departure of waders before long-distance flights: flocking, vocalizations, flight paths and diurnal timing. Ardea 78:157–184Google Scholar
  32. Piersma T, Rodgers DI, González PM, Zwarts L, Niles LJ, do Nascimento ILS, Minton CDT, Baker AJ (2005) Fuel storage rates before northward flights in Red Knots worldwide: facing the severest constraint in tropical intertidal environments? In: Greenberg R, Marra PP (eds) Birds of two worlds: the ecology and evolution of migration. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 262–373Google Scholar
  33. Prop J, Black JM, Shimmings P (2003) Travel schedules to the high arctic: barnacle geese trade-off the timing of migration with accumulation of fat deposits. Oikos 103:403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Restani M (2000) Age-specific stopover behavior of migrant bald eagles. Wilson Bull 112:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Salewski V, Schaub M (2007) Stopover duration of palearctic passerine migrants in the western Sahara—independent of fat stores? Ibis 149:223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schaub M, Pradel R, Jenni L, Lebreton J-D (2001) Migrating birds stop over longer than usually thought: an improved capture-recapture analysis. Ecol 82:852–859Google Scholar
  37. Scheiffarth G, Wahls S, Ketzenberg C, Exo KM (2002) Spring migration strategies of two populations of bar-tailed godwits, Limosa lapponica, in the Wadden Sea: time minimizers or energy minimizers? Oikos 96:346–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schekkerman H, Tulp I, Ens B (2003) Conservation of long-distance migratory wader populations: reproductive consequences of events occurring in distant staging sites. Wader Study Group Bull 100(Special issue):151–156Google Scholar
  39. Schmidt-Wellenburg CA (2007) Costs of migration: short- and long-term consequences of avian endurance flight. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Groningen, p. 159Google Scholar
  40. Skagen SK, Knopf FL (1994) Migrating shorebirds and habitat dynamics at a prairie wetland complex. Wilson Bull 106:91–105Google Scholar
  41. Statsoft Inc. (2002) STATISTICA. http://www.statsoft.com
  42. Triplet P, Overdijk O, Smart M, Nagy S, Schneider-Jacoby M, Karauz ES, Pigniczki Cs, Baha El Din S, Kralj J, Sandor A, Navedo JG (Compilers) (2008) International single species action plan for the conservation of the eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia. AEWA Technical Series no 35. Bonn, Germany, p. 40 (plus annexes)Google Scholar
  43. Ueta M, Higuchi H (2002) Difference in migration pattern between adult and immature birds using satellites. Auk 119:832–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Viegas I, Martinho F, Neto J, Pardal M (2007) Population dynamics, distribution and secondary production of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (L.) in a southern European estuary. Latitudinal variations. Sci Mar 71:451–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Weber T, Alerstam T, Hedenström A (1998) Stopover decisions under wind influence. J Avian Biol 29:552–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan G. Navedo
    • 1
    • 4
  • Germán Orizaola
    • 2
  • José A. Masero
    • 1
  • Otto Overdijk
    • 3
  • Juan M. Sánchez-Guzmán
    • 1
  1. 1.Conservation Biology Research Group, Área de ZoologíaUniversidad de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  2. 2.Population and Conservation Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology CentreUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.NatuurmonumentenWorking-Group Spoonbills InternationalSchiermonnikoogThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Unidad Académica Mazatlán, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y LimnologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMazatlánMéxico

Personalised recommendations