Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 151, Issue 3, pp 695–701 | Cite as

Exponential population increase in the endangered Ouvéa Parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaeensis) after community-based protection from nest poaching

  • Nicolas Barré
  • Jörn Theuerkauf
  • Ludovic Verfaille
  • Pierre Primot
  • Maurice Saoumoé
Original article

Abstract

The Ouvéa Parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaeensis), endemic to Ouvéa Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, south-west Pacific), is a rainforest bird that is dependent on tree cavities for nesting. It is threatened by deforestation, but also by competition for nest sites with introduced bees, harvesting for pets, and potentially predation by introduced species. Despite these threats, we show that the Ouvéa Parakeet population increased exponentially from an estimated 617 (274–996) birds in 1993 to 2,090 (1,280–3,413) birds in 2009 (95% confidence interval). We explain this population increase by community-based protection measures that eliminated nest poaching. We recommend that these measures are maintained, remnant forest is protected, and the introduction of rats is prevented.

Keywords

Nest poaching Public awareness Recovery plan Threats 

References

  1. Anonymous (2004) Un exemple de gestion concertée avec les coutumiers: la Perruche d’Ouvéa. Bilan du second séminaire. 11–14. Le nouveau plan de sauvegarde de la Perruche d’Ouvéa (2004–2008). Les Cahiers de l’Agriculture et de l’Environnement. Iles Loyauté, N°5Google Scholar
  2. ASPO (2003) Second séminaire pour la conservation de la Perruche d’Ouvéa. Bilan du plan de sauvegarde 1997–2002. Elaboration du plan de sauvegarde 2003–2008Google Scholar
  3. Berlioz J (1945) Les Psittacidés de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des établissements français d’Océanie. Oiseau Rev Fr Ornithol 15:1–9Google Scholar
  4. Bibby CJ, Burgess ND, Hill DA (1992) Bird census techniques. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. BirdLife International (2009) Species factsheet: Eunymphicus uvaeensis. (http://www.birdlife.org) downloaded on 9 August 2009
  6. Boon WM, Robinet O, Rawlence N, Bretagnolle V, Norman JA, Christidis L, Chambers GK (2008) Morphological, behavioural and genetic differentiation within the horned parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus) and its affinities to Cyanoramphus and Prosopeia. Emu 108:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brightsmith D, Bravo A (2006) Ecology and management of nesting blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia palm swamps. Biodiv Conserv 15:4271–4287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruce MD (1978) L’avifaune de Lifou (Archipel des Loyauté). Alauda 46:295–308Google Scholar
  9. Buckland ST, Anderson DR, Burnham KP, Laake JL (1993) Distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Collar NJ, Crosby MJ, Stattersfield AJ (1994) Birds to watch 2. The world list of threatened birds. Bird life conservation series N° 4. BirdLife International, Cambridge UKGoogle Scholar
  11. Hahn P (1993) Anmerkungen zur Situation des Hornsittichs Eunymphicus cornutus auf Neukaledonien und Ouvéa. Papageien 6:181–189Google Scholar
  12. Hannecart F (1988) Les oiseaux menacés de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles proches. In: Thibault JC, Guyot I (eds) Livre Rouge des Oiseaux menacés des Régions Françaises d’Outre-Mer. CIPO Monographies N°5, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. IGN (1992) Ouvéa. Carte topographique. Institut Géographique National, ParisGoogle Scholar
  14. Jourdan H (1997) Threats on Pacific Islands: the spread of the tramp ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pac Conserv Biol 3:61–64Google Scholar
  15. Juniper T, Parr M (1998) Parrots—a guide to parrots of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. King W (1981) Endangered birds of the world. The ICBP red data book. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. Lambert F, Wirth R, Ulysses SS, Thomsen JB, Ellis-Joseph S (1992) Parrots: an action plan for their conservation 1993–1998. BirdLife International-IUCN, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Pain DJ, Martins TLF, Boussekey M, Diaz SH, Downs CT, Ekstrom JMM, Garnett S, Gilardi JD, McNiven D, Primot P, Rouys S, Saoumoé M, Symes CT, Tamungang SA, Theuerkauf J, Villafuerte D, Verfailles L, Widmann P, Widmann ID (2006) Impact of protection on nest take and nesting success of parrots in Africa, Asia and Australasia. Anim Conserv 9:322–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Robinet OL (1997) Ecology and conservation of the Ouvea parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). PhD thesis, University of AucklandGoogle Scholar
  20. Robinet O, Salas M (1996) Absence of ship rat Rattus rattus, and Norway rat Rattus norvegicus, on Ouvea (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia): consequences for conservation. Pac Conserv Biol 2:390–397Google Scholar
  21. Robinet O, Beugnet F, Dulieu D, Chardonnet P (1995) The Ouvea parakeet—state of knowledge and conservation status. Oryx 29:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Robinet O, Barré N, Salas M (1996) Population estimate for the Ouvea parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis: its present range and implications for conservation. Emu 98:151–157Google Scholar
  23. Sarasin F (1913) Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin F, Roux J (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonien und auf den Loyalty-Inseln–Recherche scientifiques en Nouvelle Calédonie et aux Iles Loyalty. A. Zoologie 1 (1). C.W. Kreidels Verlag, Wiesbaden, pp 1–78Google Scholar
  24. Sherley G (2000) South Pacific regional bird conservation programme plan for action. Proceedings of the Melanesia and Nauru Avifauna conservation workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 5–10 March, 2000. SPREP-BirdLife InternationalGoogle Scholar
  25. Spaggiari J, Chartendrault V, Barré N (2007) Zones importantes pour la conservation des oiseaux de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Société Calédonienne d’Ornithologie and BirdLife International, Nouméa, Nouvelle-CalédonieGoogle Scholar
  26. Taylor B (2005) A report on the prevalence and population growth of Apis mellifera feral colonies on Ouvea and management strategies to reduce the impact on the Ouvea parakeet. AgriQuality report, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  27. Theuerkauf J, Rouys S, Mériot JM, Gula R, Kuehn R (2009) Cooperative breeding, mate guarding, and nest sharing in two parrot species of New Caledonia. J Ornithol 150:791–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Thomas L, Laake JL, Rexstad E, Strindberg S, Marques FFC, Buckland ST, Borchers DL, Anderson DR, Burnham KP, Burt ML, Hedley SL, Pollard JH, Bishop JRB, Marques TA (2009) Distance 6.0 Release 2. Research Unit for wildlife population assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. (http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/)
  29. UNEP-WCMC (2009) UNEP-WCMC species database: CITES-listed species. (http://www.unep-wcmc.org/isdb/CITES/) downloaded on 19 April 2009
  30. Wright TF, Toft CA, Enkerlin-Hoeflich E, Gonzales-Elizondo J, Albornoz M, Rodriguez-Ferraro A, Rojas-Suarez F, Sanz V, Trujillo A, Beissinger SR, Berovides AV, Galvez AX, Brice AT, Joyner K, Eberhard J, Gilardi J, Koenig SE, Stoleson S, Martuscelli P, Meyers JM, Renton K, Rodriguez AM, Sosa-Asanza AC, Vilella FJ, Wiley JW (2001) Nest poaching in neotropical parrots. Conserv Biol 15:710–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolas Barré
    • 1
  • Jörn Theuerkauf
    • 2
  • Ludovic Verfaille
    • 3
  • Pierre Primot
    • 3
  • Maurice Saoumoé
    • 3
  1. 1.SCO/IAC-CIRADNouméaNew Caledonia
  2. 2.Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Direction du Développement EconomiqueProvince des Iles LoyautéWé, LifouNew Caledonia

Personalised recommendations