Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 146, Issue 4, pp 377–382 | Cite as

Variation partitioning for range expansion of an introduced species: the common waxbill Estrilda astrild in Portugal

  • Luís ReinoEmail author
Original Article


The common waxbill Estrilda astrild was first introduced to Portugal, from Africa, in 1964, from where it has spread to much of the country and to Spain. We modelled the expansion of this species on a 20×20-km UTM grid in 4-year periods from 1964 to 1999. Colonisation process on a grid was modelled as a function of several biophysical and spatio-temporal variables through the fitting of several multiple logistic equations. Variation partitioning confirmed the importance of the spatial-temporal component, explaining 33% of the total variation, followed by the combined effects of both environmental and spatial-temporal variables (around 25%). Only 11% of the total variation can be attributed strictly to the considered environmental factors.


Common waxbill Introduced species Logistic regression Variation partitioning 



The author wishes to thank Tiago Silva and Miguel Araújo for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. I am also grateful to A. Townsend Peterson, Carsten Rahbek and an anonymous referee for many comments and suggestions. Iam also grateful to Helena Simões (ERENA) for her help on the map production and to Wanda Meulemberg for her careful help and review of the English. Finally, to Tiago Silva, for all these years working together since we started in 1994 on the introduction and expansion of the common waxbill in Iberia.


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Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de AgronomiaUniversidade Técnica de LisboaLisboaPortugal

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