Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 146, Issue 3, pp 263–270

Factors affecting the density of the middle spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos medius: a macrohabitat approach

Original Article


The main goals of this study were to investigate the relationships between densities of the breeding population of the middle spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos medius obtained on 19 large-scale plots, and the share of different habitats and age of forest stands. An average crude density based on an area defined arbitrarily by observers was 0.66±0.43 territories/10 ha, while the ecological density based on an area including habitats potentially used by organisms reached 1.09±0.64 territories/10 ha. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that the crude density was negatively affected by the share of coniferous forest thereby explaining 50% of variation. The ecological density was negatively correlated with the percentage of young deciduous stands (0–40 years old). This variable explained 36% of the total variation. These results suggest that on the level of macrohabitat analysis, the share of unsuitable forest stands seem to play a major role in determining the density of the middle spotted woodpecker.


Density Forest age Habitat selection Middle spotted woodpecker Plot size effect 

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Biology, Department of Avian Biology and EcologyAdam Mickiewicz UniversityPoznańPoland

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