Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 146, Issue 2, pp 103–110 | Cite as

On the phylogenetic position of the Okinawa woodpecker (Sapheopipo noguchii)

  • Hans Winkler
  • Nobuhiko Kotaka
  • Anita Gamauf
  • Franziska Nittinger
  • Elisabeth Haring
Original Article

Abstract

The Okinawa woodpecker Sapheopipo noguchii is the rarest extant woodpecker species. The monotypic genus Sapheopipo was considered to be a representative of an old lineage of woodpeckers that led to the Eurasian genera Picus and the Blythipicus–Gecinulus species. This view, based on similarities in color patterns, external morphology and foraging behavior, has been adopted in all major accounts of the family. The alternative view, that this woodpecker may be related to the widespread white-backed woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos, which evolved distinctive subspecies on other East Asian islands, has not been generally accepted. We analyzed partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene to test these hypotheses. The data suggest that the Okinawa woodpecker is a member of the genus Dendrocopos, with white-backed woodpecker and great spotted woodpecker D. major as close relatives. Color patterns support the genetic results and indicate a closer relationship with the white-backed woodpecker. Consequently, the correct taxonomic designation of the Okinawa woodpecker would be Dendrocopos noguchii (Seebohm in Ibis 5(5):173–182, 1887) in the tribe Campetherini rather than Picini.

Keywords

Picidae Phylogeny Island Sapheopipo Dendrocopos 

References

  1. Bennett PM, Owens IPF (1997) Variation in extinction risk among birds: chance or evolutionary predisposition? Proc R Soc Lond B 264:401–408Google Scholar
  2. BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Lynx, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  3. Bock WJ (1999) Functional and evolutionary morphology of woodpeckers. Ostrich 70:23–31Google Scholar
  4. Cicero C, Johnson NK (1995) Speciation in sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus): III. Mitochondrial-DNA sequence divergence at the cytochrome-b locus. Auk 112:547–563Google Scholar
  5. Cicero C, Johnson NK (2001) Higher-level phylogeny of New World vireos (Aves: Vireonidae) based on sequences of multiple mitochondrial DNA genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 20:27–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Defilippis VR, Moore WS (2000) Resolution of phylogenetic relationships among recently evolved species as a function of amount of DNA sequence: an empirical study based on woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol 16:143–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Espinosa de los Monteros A (2000) Higher-level phylogeny of trogoniformes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 14:20–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Euler F von (2001) Selective extinction and rapid loss of evolutionary history in the bird fauna. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:127–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Faith DP (1992) Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biol Conserv 61:1–10Google Scholar
  10. Goodge WR (1972) Anatomical evidence for phylogenetic relationships among woodpeckers. Auk 89:65–85Google Scholar
  11. Goodwin D (1968) Notes on woodpeckers (Picidae). Bull Brit Mus (Nat Hist) Zool 17:1–44Google Scholar
  12. Hargitt E (1890) Cat Bds Brit Mus 18Google Scholar
  13. Heard SB, Mooers AØ (2000) Phylogenetically patterned speciation rates and extinction risks change the loss of evolutionary history during extinctions. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:613–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kocher TD, Thomas WK, Meyer A, Edwards SV, Pääbo S, Villablanca FX, Wilson AC (1989) Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:6196–6200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kudaka M (2000) The forest of Yambaru, 2nd edn. Wild Bird Society of Japan, Toyokan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  16. Moritz C (1994) Defining ‘evolutionary significant units’ for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 9:373–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ouellet H (1977) Relationships of woodpecker genera Dendrocopos Koch and Picoides Lacepede, (Aves, Picidae). Ardea 65:165–183Google Scholar
  18. Peters JL (1948) Check-list of birds of the world, vol 6. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Prychitko TM, Moore WS (1997) The utility of DNA sequences of an intron from the β-fibrinogen gene in phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol 8:193–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Purvis A, Agapow PM, Gittleman JL, Mace GM (2000) Nonrandom extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science 288:328–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Scherzinger W (1982) Die Spechte im Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald. Schriftenreihe des Bayerischen Staatsministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten 9:1–119Google Scholar
  23. Seebohm H (1887) Notes on the birds of the Loo-choo islands. Ibis 5(5):173–182Google Scholar
  24. Short LL (1973) Habits, relationships, and conservation of the Okinawa woodpecker. Wilson Bull 85:5–20Google Scholar
  25. Short LL (1982) Woodpeckers of the world. Delaware Museum of Natural History, GreenvilleGoogle Scholar
  26. Sibley CG, Monroe BL (1990) Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  27. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods), version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  28. Weibel AC, Moore WS (2002a) Molecular phylogeny of a cosmopolitan group of woodpeckers (genus Picoides) based on COI and cyt b mitochondrial gene sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 22:65–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Weibel AC, Moore WS (2002b) A test of a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny of woodpeckers (genus Picoides) using an independent nuclear gene, β-fibrinogen intron 7. Mol Phylogenet Evol 22:247–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Winkler H, Christie DA (2002) Family Picidae (woodpeckers). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol 7. Lynx, Barcelona, pp 296–555Google Scholar
  31. Winkler H, Christie DA, Nurney D (1995) A guide to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks of the world. Pica, SussexGoogle Scholar
  32. Yamashina Y (1941) On the three endemic birds on the Ryukyu Islands. Trans Bio Geogr Soc Japan 3:319–328Google Scholar
  33. Zink RM, Rohwer S, Drovetski S, Blackwell-Rago RC, Farrell SL (2002a) Holarctic phylogeography and species limits of Three-toed Woodpeckers. Condor 104:167–170Google Scholar
  34. Zink RM, Drovetski SV, Rohwer S (2002b) Phylogeographic patterns in the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) across Eurasia. J Avian Biol 33:175–178Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Winkler
    • 1
  • Nobuhiko Kotaka
    • 2
  • Anita Gamauf
    • 3
  • Franziska Nittinger
    • 3
  • Elisabeth Haring
    • 3
  1. 1.Konrad Lorenz Institute for EthologyAustrian Academy of SciencesViennaAustria
  2. 2.Yambaru Wildlife Center, Ministry of the EnvironmentHiji, KunigamiJapan
  3. 3.Museum of Natural HistoryViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations