Long-term satellite tracking of white stork (Ciconia ciconia) migration: constancy versus variability
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During satellite-tracking investigations of 140 white storks (Ciconia ciconia), one individual, the long-term world record holder among birds, was followed along 12 migratory journeys over a period of 10 years. This long-term study confirms what previous several-year tracking studies of white storks had indicated: there can be great variability from year to year in the choice of winter quarters as well as in the routes and times of migration, intermediate destinations and stop-over periods, but constancy of winter quarters and migration routes is also possible. The variability may well be caused by external factors, of which food supply is probably predominant.