Determination of oxygen r1 at 3 Tesla using samples with a concentration range of dissolved oxygen

  • Svein Are Sirirud VatneholEmail author
  • Per Kristian Hol
  • Atle Bjørnerud
  • Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
  • Camilla Haglerød
  • Tryggve Holck Storås
Research Article



To investigate the sensitivity of modified Look–Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) to measure changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in water samples and to calculate sequence-specific relaxivity (r1m) and limit of detection (LOD).

Materials and methods

Ten water samples with a range of DO concentrations were scanned at 3 T using two variations of MOLLI schemes. Using linear regression the r1 of DO was estimated from the measured DO concentrations and T1 relaxation rates (R1). The results were combined with previously reported values on in vivo stability measures of the MOLLI sequences and used to estimate a LOD.


DO concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 21.6 mg L−1. A linear correlation between DO and R1 was obtained with both MOLLI sequences, with an average correlation coefficient (R2) 0.9 and an average estimated r1 (\(\hat{r}_{1}\)) of 4.45 × 10−3 s−1 mg−1 L. Estimated LOD was ≈ 10 mg L−1.


MOLLI T1-mapping sequences may be used for detecting dissolved oxygen in vivo at 3 T with an \(\hat{r}_{1}\) in the range 4.18–4.8 × 10−3 s−1 mg−1 L and a corresponding LOD for dissolved oxygen of approximately 10 mg L−1. MOLLI-based T1 mapping may be a useful non-invasive tool for quantification of in vivo changes of DO concentration during oxygen challenges.


Quantitative MRI MRI relaxometry Oxygen 


Authors’ contribution

SASV: study conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript, critical revision. PKH, AB, CH, THS: study conception and design, drafting of manuscript, critical revision.


This study is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, Grant Number 257454. Support with Winkler titration: Ingrid Moen.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Vatnehol, Haglerød and Amiry-Moghaddam are employee of Oxy Solutions A/S, a biotech company working with oxygenation of liquids. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (JPEG 93 kb)
10334_2019_783_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (132 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (JPEG 131 kb)


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Copyright information

© European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology (ESMRMB) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.The Intervention CentreOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  3. 3.Oxy Solutions ASOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  5. 5.Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Computational Radiology and Artificial IntelligenceOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  6. 6.Department of Diagnostic PhysicsOslo University HospitalOsloNorway

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