Comparison of B0 versus B0 and B1 field inhomogeneity correction for glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging

  • Anja Müller-Lutz
  • Alexandra LjimaniEmail author
  • Julia Stabinska
  • Moritz Zaiss
  • Johannes Boos
  • Hans-Jörg Wittsack
  • Christoph Schleich
Research Article



The study compares glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) imaging of intervertebral discs corrected for solely B0 inhomogeneities or both B0 and B1 inhomogeneities.


Lumbar intervertebral discs of 20 volunteers were examined with T2-weighted and gagCEST imaging. Field inhomogeneity correction was performed with B0 correction only and with correction of both B0 and B1. GagCEST effects measured by the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were compared between both methods.


Significant higher MTRasym and SNR values were obtained in the nucleus pulposus using B0 and B1 correction compared with B0-corrected gagCEST. The GagCEST effect was significantly different in the nucleus pulposus compared with the annulus fibrosus for both methods.


The B0 and B1 field inhomogeneity correction method leads to an improved quality of gagCEST imaging in IVDs compared with only B0 correction.


Chemical exchange saturation transfer Field inhomogeneity correction WASSR WASABI Glycosaminoglycans Intervertebral disks 


Authors contribution

Study conception and design: A.M.-L., J.S., M.Z., H.-J.W., C.S. Acquisition of data: A.M.-L. Analysis and interpretation of data: A.M.-L., A.L., J.S., M.Z., J.B., H.-J.W., C.S. Drafting of manuscript: A.M.-L., A.L., J.S., J.B., H.-J.W., C.S. Critical revision: A.M.-L., A.L., J.S., J.B., H.-J.W., C.S.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical standards

The study was performed in compliance with ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Dusseldorf Medical FacultyDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.High-Field MR CenterMax Planck Institute for Biological CyberneticsTübingenGermany

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